[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient removal of apoptotic cells is essential for the resolution of acute pulmonary inflammation. Alveolar macrophages ingest apoptotic cells less avidly than other professional phagocytes at rest but overcome this defect during acute inflammation. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D are potent modulators of macrophage function and may suppress clearance of apoptotic cells through activation of the transmembrane receptor signal inhibitory regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha).
To investigate whether binding of SP-A and SP-D to SIRP alpha on alveolar macrophages suppresses apoptotic cell clearance.
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was assessed using macrophages pretreated with SP-A, SP-D, or the collectin-like molecule C1q. Binding of SP-A and SP-D to SIRP alpha was confirmed in vitro using blocking antibodies and fibroblasts transfected with active and mutant SIRP alpha. The effects of downstream molecules SHP-1 and RhoA on phagocytosis were studied using SHP-1-deficient mice, sodium stibogluconate, and a Rho kinase inhibitor. Lipopolysaccharide was given to chimeric mice to study the effects of SP-A and SP-D binding on inflammatory macrophages.
Preincubation of macrophages with SP-A or SP-D suppressed apoptotic cell clearance. Surfactant suppression of macrophage phagocytosis was reversed by blocking SIRP alpha and inhibiting downstream molecules SHP-1 and RhoA. Macrophages from inflamed lungs ingested apoptotic cells more efficiently than resting alveolar macrophages. Recruited mononuclear phagocytes with low levels of SP-A and SP-D mediated this effect.
SP-A and SP-D tonically inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis by binding SIRP alpha. During acute pulmonary inflammation, defects in apoptotic cell clearance are overcome by recruited mononuclear phagocytes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) are lung collectins composed of two regions, a globular head domain that binds PAMPs and a collagenous tail domain that initiates phagocytosis. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D act in a dual manner, to enhance or suppress inflammatory mediator production depending on binding orientation. SP-A and SP-D bind SIRPalpha through their globular heads to initiate a signaling pathway that blocks proinflammatory mediator production. In contrast, their collagenous tails stimulate proinflammatory mediator production through binding to calreticulin/CD91. Together a model is implied in which SP-A and SP-D help maintain a non/anti-inflammatory lung environment by stimulating SIRPalpha on resident cells through their globular heads. However, interaction of these heads with PAMPs on foreign organisms or damaged cells and presentation of the collagenous tails in an aggregated state to calreticulin/CD91, stimulates phagocytosis and proinflammatory responses.