[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives: Alcoholism is chronic disease where course and prognosis are essentially different. Personality features play an important role in addiction process. Psychobiological personality model according to R. Cloninger takes into account the biological background of some personality dimensions. TCI Cloninger personality questionaire allows such features as temperament and character to be evaluated. Aim of following study was to try to answer the questions; were there any differences in personality features measured with the use of TCI questionaire between the group of alcoholics (members of Anonymous Alcoholics, persons hospitalized due to psychiatric complications of alcohol addiction disease) and control group and was there any linkage between personality features of studied persons and the length of there abstinence. Material and methods: 12 women and 43 men, from the group of Anonymous Alcoholics, with minimal time of full alcohol abstinence of 6 months were qualified to our study. The group of hospitalized patients consisted of 44 men and 9 women. They were tested with the use of TCI questionaire after the withdrawal of symptomes of alcohol abstinence syndrome. Control group consisted of 118 women and 70 men with no family relations to each other, all mentally healthy (with no mental disorders). Sociodemographic data together with informations about course, prevalence and kind of alcohol addiction complications were not significantly different between the group of Anonymous Alcoholics and hospitalized patients. Results and conclusions: On the basis of statistical analysis results there were no significant differences in types of alcoholism according to Cloninger between the group of Anonymous Alcoholics and hospitalized alcoholics. Persons taking part in Anonymous Alcoholic meetings, sustaining long alcohol abstinence are much different in the respect of personality features from general population of alcoholics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The paper focuses on such candidate gene polymorphisms that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes including: dopaminergic system polymorphic variants (DRD2 -141C Ins/Del in promoter region, exon 8 and DRD2 TaqI A and DAT 40bp VNTR genes polymorphisms) that cause predisposition to severe alcoholism (haplotype Ins/G/A2); COMT Val158Met gene polymorphism related to differences in executive cognitive function and 5-HTT gene promoter polymorphism, which alters stress response and affects anxiety and dysphoria. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used in the study. One hundred Polish families with alcohol dependence were recruited. The control subjects for the case-control study were 196 ethnically and gender matched healthy individuals. It was found that DRD2 TaqIA and DAT gene polymorphisms contained statistically significant differences in allele transmission. In the homogenous subgroups of patients with early onset and with withdrawal complications a statistically significant preferential A2 allele transmission was found in DRD2 TaqIA gene polymorphism. The alleles and genotypes distribution of the investigated polymorphisms did not differ significantly between the alcoholics and the controls in the case-control study. The results confirmed the fact that the candidate genes (DRD2 and DAT) are partially responsible for the development of alcohol dependence. The results are also in agreement with the hypothesis that there are various subtypes of alcohol dependence, which differ depending on their genetic background. Meanwhile, the currently available pharmacological therapies for alcoholism treatment are effective in some alcoholics but not for all of them. Some progress has been made in elucidating pharmacogenomic responses to drugs, particularly in the context of Clonninger and Lesch typology classification system for alcoholics.