[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral contraceptives (OC) in the presence of factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) markedly increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Little is known about the OC and FVL-related alterations in fibrin clot properties.
Plasma fibrin clot permeability (K(s)) and efficiency of lysis, reflected by clot lysis time (CLT) and the rate of D-dimer release from clots (D-D(rate)) induced by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were determined in 25 women with a family history of VTE who were heterozygous for FVL [FVL(+/-) - twice, on third-generation OC and after their discontinuation. Female non-carriers of FVL, matched for demographics, using OC and after their discontinuation served as controls (n=25). All participants had no personal history of VTE.
OC discontinuation in FVL(+/-) women resulted in shortened CLT (-9%), and increased K(s) (+4%) and D-D(rate) (+1.4%; all p<0.01). Alterations in fibrin clot properties were associated with decreased prothrombin fragments 1+2 (F1+2) (-8%), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen (-11%), and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) activity (-20%; all p<0.01). During OC use FVL(+/-) carriers compared with non-carriers had higher platelet count, activity of PAI-1, TAFI, and tPA, as well as prolonged CLT and higher D-D(max), along with lower D-D(rate) and K(s). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for fibrinogen and age, showed that PAI-1 antigen and TAFI activity independently predicted CLT in FVL(+/-) women on OC.
FVL(+/-) is associated with hypofibrinolysis in apparently healthy women and third-generation OC administration unfavorably alters plasma clot characteristics in female FVL(+/-) carriers with a family history of thrombotic events.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A daily dose of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) may vary and its range depends on various interrelated factors. Low responsiveness to VKA (defined as a failure to achieve a target international normalized ratio [INR]) is associated with polymorphisms of the vitamin K epoxide reductase-oxidase complex gene (VKORC1). A highly prevalent promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (VKORC1-1639 G>A, rs17878363) impairs VKORC1 expression and determines the interindividual variability of the target INR. We studied 57 patients receiving oral anticoagulation, including 50 subjects treated with acenocoumarol (mean dose: 5.7+/-2.3 mg/day) and 7 treated with warfarin (mean dose: 9.6+/-4.2 mg/day). The indications for the use of oral anticoagulant therapy were as follows: deep-vein thrombosis (N = 23); pulmonary embolism (N = 20); arterial thrombosis (N = 5); stroke (N = 4); atrial fibrillation with transient ischemic attacks (N = 2), and history of multiple thromboembolic events (N = 3). Identification of the VKORC1 genomic variation was performed using DNA sequencing methods. The prevalence of the mutated allele (VKORC1 -1639A) was 41%. The VKORC1 -1639G allele carriers required a higher daily dose of acenocoumarol (5.9+/-1.9 mg) than the noncarriers (4.1+/-3.3 mg; P < 0.001). All of 5 low responders (who failed to achieve a target INR using standard dose requirements of VKAs) were homozygous for the 1639G allele. Low responders did not differ from good responders with respect to age, gender, and body mass index. Our findings suggest the potential benefits from pharmacogenetic testing, and provide evidence that the VKORC1 -1639 G>A gene polymorphism may explain at least in part the low responsiveness to acenocoumarol.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of applied genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that fibrin structure/function is unfavorably altered in patients after idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) and their relatives. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeability, turbidimetry, and efficiency of fibrinolysis were investigated in 100 patients with first-ever VTE, including 34 with pulmonary embolism (PE), 100 first-degree relatives, and 100 asymptomatic controls with no history of thrombotic events. Known thrombophilia, cancer, trauma, and surgery were exclusion criteria. VTE patients and their relatives were characterized by lower clot permeability (P < .001), lower compaction (P < .001), higher maximum clot absorbancy (P < .001), and prolonged clot lysis time (P < .001) than controls, with more pronounced abnormalities, except maximum clot absorbance, in the patients versus relatives (all P < .01). Fibrin clots obtained for PE patients were more permeable, less compact, and were lysed more efficiently compared with deep-vein thrombosis patients (all P < .05) with no differences in their relatives. Being VTE relative, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein were independent predictors of clot permeability and fibrinolysis time in combined analysis of controls and relatives. We conclude that altered fibrin clot features are associated with idiopathic VTE with a different profile of fibrin variables in PE. Similar features can be detected in VTE relatives. Fibrin properties might represent novel risk factors for thrombosis.