[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. In this context, specialized proresolving mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids are of interest. In this study, we report that resolvin E2 (RvE2) from eicosapentaenoic acid is endogenously produced during self-limited murine peritonitis in both the initiation and resolution phases. RvE2 (1-10 nM) carries potent leukocyte-directed actions that include: 1) regulating chemotaxis of human neutrophils; and 2) enhancing phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. These actions appear to be mediated by leukocyte G-protein-coupled receptors as preparation of labeled RvE2 gave direct evidence for specific binding of radiolabeled RvE2 to neutrophils (K(d) 24.7 ± 10.1 nM) and resolvin E1 activation of recombinant G-protein-coupled receptors was assessed. In addition to the murine inflammatory milieu, RvE2 was also identified in plasma from healthy human subjects. RvE2 rapidly downregulated surface expression of human leukocyte integrins in whole blood and dampened responses to platelet-activating factor. Together, these results indicate that RvE2 can stimulate host-protective actions throughout initiation and resolution in the innate inflammatory responses.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived lipid mediator generated during resolution of inflammation and in human vasculature via leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. RvE1 possesses anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions. Here, we report that RvE1 in human whole blood rapidly regulates leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. RvE1 in the 10- to 100-nM range stimulated L-selectin shedding, while reducing CD18 expression in both neutrophils and monocytes. When added to whole blood, RvE1 did not stimulate reactive oxygen species by either neutrophils or monocytes, nor did it directly stimulate cytokine/chemokine production in heparinized blood. Intravital microscopy (IVM) demonstrated that RvE1 rapidly reduced leukocyte rolling (approximately 40%) in venules of mice. In human platelet-rich plasma (PRP), RvE1 selectively blocked both ADP-stimulated and thromboxane receptor agonist U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, Delta 6,14-trans-RvE1 isomer was inactive. RvE1 did not block collagen-stimulated aggregation, and regulation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was not further enhanced with aspirin treatment. These results indicate RvE1 is a potent modulator of leukocytes as well as selective platelet responses in blood and PRP, respectively. Moreover, the results demonstrate novel agonist-specific antiplatelet actions of RvE1 that are potent and may underlie some of the beneficial actions of EPA in humans.