[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human colon adenocarcinoma cells are resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, that induce death by increasing the reactive oxygen species. A number of studies have been focused on chemo-preventive use of resveratrol as antioxidant against cardiovascular diseases, aging and cancer. While resveratrol cytotoxic action was due to its pro-oxidant properties. In this study, we investigate whether the Resveratrol (trans-3,5,49-trihydroxystilbene) and its natural precursor Polydatin (resveratrol-3-O-b-mono- D-glucoside, the glycoside form of resveratrol) combination, might have a cooperative antitumor effect on either growing or differentiated human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells.
The polydatin and resveratrol pharmacological interaction was evaluated in vitro on growing and differentiated Caco-2 cell lines by median drug effect analysis calculating a combination index with CalcuSyn software. We have selected a synergistic combination and we have evaluated its effect on the biological and molecular mechanisms of cell death.
Simultaneous exposure to polydatin and resveratrol produced synergistic antiproliferative effects compared with single compound treatment. We demonstrated that polydatin alone or in combination with resveratrol at 3:1 molar ratio synergistically modulated oxidative stress, cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Worthy of note treatment with polydatin induced a nuclear localization and decreased expression of heat shock protein 27, and vimentin redistributed within the cell.
From morphological, and biochemical outcome we obtained evidences that polydatin induced a transition from a proliferative morphology to cell-specific differentiated structures and caused human CaCo-2 cell death by induction of apoptosis. Our data suggest the potential use of polydatin in combination chemotherapy for human colon cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that human keratinocytes produce the anti-microbial peptide β-defensin 2. Its production is enhanced by pathogenic microorganisms or other environmental stressors. In this study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol, a polyphenol found in several dietary source as grape seed, and its natural precursor, polydatin on heat-stressed human keratinocytes. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, we demonstrated that resveratrol used in combination with polydatin was able to modulate interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. In addition, our data show that resveratrol and polydatin increased the heat shock protein (Hsp)70B' gene expression, a Hsp that plays an important role in the cytoprotection and repair of cells and tissues. Worthy of note, polydatin used alone or in combination with resveratrol, increased the release of human β-defensin 2. These results highlighted the ability of polydatin and resveratrol to reinforce cytoprotective response in stress conditions and suggest their use in cosmetic or pharmaceutical preparations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are molecules naturally present in many cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, black radish, daikon radish, and cauliflowers). Several studies suggest that cruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce cancer risk and slow the aging process. To investigate the effect of ITCs on cellular DNA damage, we evaluated the effects of two different ITCs [sulforaphane (SFN) and raphasatin (RPS)] on the biology of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which, in addition to their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues, contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs. The choice of SFN and RPS relies on two considerations: they are among the most popular cruciferous vegetables in the diet of western and eastern countries, respectively, and their bioactive properties may differ since they possess specific molecular moiety. Our investigation evidenced that MSCs incubated with low doses of SFN and RPS show reduced in vitro oxidative stress. Moreover, these cells are protected from oxidative damages induced by hydrogen peroxide, while no protection was evident following treatment with the UV ray of a double strand DNA damaging drug, such as doxorubicin. High concentrations of both ITCs induced cytotoxic effects in MSC cultures and further increased DNA damage induced by peroxides. In summary, our study suggests that ITCs, at low doses, may contribute to slowing the aging process related to oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, in cancer treatment, low doses of ITCs may be used as an adjuvant to reduce chemotherapy-induced oxidative stress, while high doses may synergize with anticancer drugs to promote cell DNA damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of gut microbiota on non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis.
Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between gut microbiota and liver. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestine, the liver represents the first line of defence against gut-derived antigens. Intestinal bacteria play a key role in the maintenance of gut-liver axis health. Disturbances in the homeostasis between bacteria- and host-derived signals at the epithelial level lead to a break in intestinal barrier function and may foster "bacterial translocation", defined as the migration of bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes or other extraintestinal organs and sites. While the full repertoire of gut-derived microbial products that reach the liver in health and disease has yet to be explored, the levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver diseases. Derangement of the gut flora, particularly small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, occurs in a large percentage (20-75%) of patients with chronic liver disease. In addition, evidence implicating the gut-liver axis in the pathogenesis of metabolic liver disorders has accumulated over the past ten years.
Complex metabolic diseases are the product of multiple perturbations under the influence of triggering factors such as gut microbiota and diet, thus, modulation of the gut microbiota may represent a new way to treat or prevent NAFLD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survivin (SVV) is a protein that belongs to the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) family and is involved in the G2/M phase progression of the cell cycle as a spindle‑associated molecule. The biological features of this protein are well documented and its activity appears to be involved in mitochondria-dependent and -independent antiapoptotic pathways. Overexpression of SVV at the transcriptional and translational level has been associated with cancer, a multifactorial disorder in which the occurrence of a -31G to C polymorphism in the promoter region may significantly contribute to the development of this pathology. To verify this hypothesis, the occurrence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cis-acting cell cycle-dependent elements (CDEs) and in cell cycle homology regions (CHRs) of the survivin TATA-less promoter was investigated. A total of 23 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and normal epithelium-derived normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cell lines were analyzed by RFLP and direct DNA sequencing of their promoter region. Furthermore, survivin expression at the transcriptional and translational levels was evaluated in these cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The findings indicate that the presence of a G or C allele is not directly correlated to survivin expression, at the mRNA or at the protein level, at least in the OSCC lines analyzed in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brassica vegetables are attracting a great deal of attention as healthy foods because of the fact that they contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolite glucosinolates that are converted into isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane [(-)1-isothiocyanato-4R-(methylsulfinyl)-butane] (R-SFN), through the actions of chopping or chewing the vegetables. Several studies have analyzed the biological and molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of synthetic R,S-sulforaphane, which is thought to be a result of its antioxidant properties and its ability to inhibit histone deacetylase enzymes (HDAC). Few studies have addressed the possible antioxidant effects of R-SFN, which could protect cells from the free radical damage that strongly contribute to aging. Moreover, little is known about the effect of R-SFN on stem cells whose longevity is implicated in human aging. We evaluated the effects of R-SFN on the biology on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which, in addition to their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues, support hematopoiesis, and contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs and tissues. Our investigation found evidence that low doses of R-SFN promote MSCs proliferation and protect them from apoptosis and senescence, while higher doses have a cytotoxic effect, leading to the induction of cell cycle arrest, programmed cell death and senescence. The beneficial effects of R-SFN may be ascribed to its antioxidant properties, which were observed when MSC cultures were incubated with low doses of R-SFN. Its cytotoxic effects, which were observed after treating MSCs with high doses of R-SFN, could be attributed to its HDAC inhibitory activity. In summary, we found that R-SFN, like many other dietary supplements, exhibits a hormetic behavior; it is able to induce biologically opposite effects at different doses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Gluten-sensitive individuals (GS) cannot tolerate gluten and may develop gastrointestinal symptoms similar to those in CD, but the overall clinical picture is generally less severe and is not accompanied by the concurrence of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies or autoimmune comorbidities. By studying and comparing mucosal expression of genes associated with intestinal barrier function, as well as innate and adaptive immunity in CD compared with GS, we sought to better understand the similarities and differences between these two gluten-associated disorders.
CD, GS and healthy, gluten-tolerant individuals were enrolled in this study. Intestinal permeability was evaluated using a lactulose and mannitol probe, and mucosal biopsy specimens were collected to study the expression of genes involved in barrier function and immunity.
Unlike CD, GS is not associated with increased intestinal permeability. In fact, this was significantly reduced in GS compared with controls (P = 0.0308), paralleled by significantly increased expression of claudin (CLDN) 4 (P = 0.0286). Relative to controls, adaptive immunity markers interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.0124) and IL-21 (P = 0.0572) were expressed at higher levels in CD but not in GS, while expression of the innate immunity marker Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was increased in GS but not in CD (P = 0.0295). Finally, expression of the T-regulatory cell marker FOXP3 was significantly reduced in GS relative to controls (P = 0.0325) and CD patients (P = 0.0293).
This study shows that the two gluten-associated disorders, CD and GS, are different clinical entities, and it contributes to the characterization of GS as a condition associated with prevalent gluten-induced activation of innate, rather than adaptive, immune responses in the absence of detectable changes in mucosal barrier function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal permeability (IPT) was investigated in patients with autism as well as in their first-degree relatives to investigate leaky gut hypothesis. Faecal calprotectin (FC) was also measured in patients with autism, either with or without gastrointestinal symptoms, and in their first-degree relatives.
IPT results, assessed by means of the lactulose/mannitol test, were compared with adult and child controls and with FC values.
A high percentage of abnormal IPT values were found among patients with autism (36.7%) and their relatives (21.2%) compared with normal subjects (4.8%). Patients with autism on a reported gluten-casein-free diet had significantly lower IPT values compared with those who were on an unrestricted diet and controls. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 46.7% of children with autism: constipation (45.5%), diarrhoea (34.1%), and others (alternating diarrhoea/constipation, abdominal pain, etc: 15.9%). FC was elevated in 24.4% of patients with autism and in 11.6% of their relatives; it was not, however, correlated with abnormal IPT values.
The results obtained support the leaky gut hypothesis and indicate that measuring IPT could help to identify a subgroup of patients with autism who could benefit from a gluten-free diet. The IPT alterations found in first-degree relatives suggest the presence of an intestinal (tight-junction linked) hereditary factor in the families of subjects with autism.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota may participate in
both the induction and the progression of liver damage. The aim of our
research was the detection and evaluation of the effects of chronic treatment
with a symbiotic formulation on CCl4-induced rat liver fibrosis. Results: CCl4
significantly increased gastric permeability in respect to basal values, and the
treatment with symbiotic significantly decreased it. CCl4 per se induced a
decrease in intestinal permeability. This effect was also seen in fibrotic rats
treated with symbiotic and was still evident when normal rats were treated
with symbiotic alone (P < 0.001 in all cases). Circulating levels of proinflammatory
cytokine TNF-a were significantly increased in rats with liver
fibrosis as compared with normal rats, while symbiotic treatment normalized
the plasma levels of TNF-a and significantly enhanced anti-inflammatory
cytokine IL 10. TNF-a, TGF-b, TLR4, TLR2, iNOS and a-SMA mRNA
expression in the liver were up-regulated in rats with CCl4-induced
liver fibrosis and down-regulated by symbiotic treatment. Moreover, IL-10
and eNOS mRNA levels were increased in the CCL4
Symbiotic treatment of fibrotic rats normalized serum ALT, AST and
improved histology and liver collagen deposition. DGGE analysis of faecal
samples revealed that CCl4 administration and symbiotic treatment either
alone or in combination produced modifications in faecal profiles vs controls.
Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that in CCl4-induced liver
fibrosis, significant changes in gastro-intestinal permeability and in faecal flora
occur. Treatment with a specific symbiotic formulation significantly affects
these changes, leading to improvement in both liver inflammation and fibrosis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Digestive and Liver Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that the gamma-glutamyl 16 amine derivative of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) acts as structural VIP agonist with affinity and potency higher than VIP. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of VIP and gamma-Gln16-diaminopropane derivative of VIP (VIP-DAP3) on the proliferation and protection from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. We have found that 10(-11) M VIP-DAP3 completely antagonized the inhibition induced by H2O2 on both cell proliferation and S-phase distribution while these effects were only partially antagonized by equimolar concentrations of VIP. Moreover, both oxidative stress and intracellular lipid oxidation induced by H2O2 were reduced by VIP and completely antagonized by VIP-DAP3. Thereafter, we have found that H2O2 increased p38 kinase activity and both HSP70 and HSP27 expression. VIP and VIP-DAP3 again antagonized these effects partially or totally, respectively. H2O2 reduced the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases Erk-1/2 and Akt, signalling proteins involved in proliferation/survival pathways. Again VIP restored the activity of both kinases while VIP-DAP3 caused indeed an increase of their activity as compared to untreated cells. These data suggest that VIP-DAP3 has a stronger anti-oxidative activity as compared to VIP likely based on its super-agonistic binding on the putative receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by fungal of Aspergillus species absorbed in human through contaminate food in gastrointestinal tract. OTA has been demonstrated to be teratogenic in a number of species including mice and potentially human. Mice exposed in uterus to OTA develop craniofacial abnormalities such as exencephaly, microencephaly, microphthalmia and facial clefts. An important role in differentiation of maxillofacial are exerted by the Hox related genes Dlx and Msx. In the present investigation we have confirmed that 2.75 mg/kg body weight OTA, given at gestational day 7.5, induces significant developmental craniofacial anomalies in mice and we have demonstrated the down expression of Dlx5, a member of Dlx gene family, that seems to be responsible of the observed deformities. These results support the hypothesis that Dlx5 is a target for ochratoxin and the inhibition of its function, directly or indirectly, could be at origin of the observed differentiation defects.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune-mediated enteropathy, celiac disease (CD), and gluten sensitivity (GS) are two distinct clinical conditions that are both triggered by the ingestion of wheat gliadin. CD, but not GS, is associated with and possibly mediated by an autoimmune process. Recent studies show that gliadin may induce the activation of IL-17-producing T cells and that IL-17 expression in the CD mucosa correlates with gluten intake.
The small-intestinal mucosa of patients with CD and GS and dyspeptic controls was analyzed for expression of IL-17A mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR. The number of CD3+ and TCR-gammadelta lymphocytes and the proportion of CD3+ cells coexpressing the Th17 marker CCR6 were examined by in situ small-intestinal immunohistochemistry.
Mucosal expression of IL-17A was significantly increased in CD but not in GS patients, compared to controls. This difference was due to enhanced IL-17A levels in >50% of CD patients, with the remainder expressing levels similar to GS patients or controls, and was paralleled by a trend toward increased proportions of CD3+CCR6+ cells in intestinal mucosal specimens from these subjects.
We conclude that GS, albeit gluten-induced, is different from CD not only with respect to the genetic makeup and clinical and functional parameters, but also with respect to the nature of the immune response. Our findings also suggest that two subgroups of CD, IL-17-dependent and IL-17-independent, may be identified based on differential mucosal expression of this cytokine.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seminal vesicle protein number 4 (SV-IV) is a small, basic, multifunctional, intrinsically disordered secretory protein synthesized in large amounts by rat seminal vesicle epithelium under androgen transcriptional control. SV-IV-immunorelated proteins occur in other rat tissues and in humans.
The in vitro effect of SV-IV on human FcepsilonRI+ cells was investigated by standard immunologic, biochemical and molecular biology procedures.
SV-IV-induced histamine release from human basophils and lung mast cells without any influence on leukotriene C(4) release and cell migration. The histamine release rate was slower compared with that induced by anti-IgE, the temperature dependence of the event being similar. SV-IV-induced histamine release was Ca2+-dependent, suggesting a physiological interaction of the protein with FcepsilonRI+ cells. SV-IV and anti-IgE acted synergistically on the histamine release. SV-IV did not induce de novo synthesis of cytokines and growth factors (transforming growth factor-beta(1), interleukin-10, interleukin-13, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor A) in FcepsilonRI+ cells.
SV-IV protein induces in human FcepsilonRI+ cells the release of histamine, a proinflammatory, antiapoptotic and immunosuppressive biogenic amine. These data: (1) are consistent with the antiapoptotic and immunosuppressive properties of SV-IV; (2) confirm a regulatory feature of SV-IV on mammal inflammatory reactivity by either inhibiting the arachidonate cascade pathway or stimulating proinflammatory cytokine release from lymphocyte/monocytes and histamine from FcepsilonRI+ cells; (3) raise the possibility of a protective role of SV-IV on implanting hemiallogenic blastocysts against maternal reactive oxygen species and immunological attacks at the uterine implantation site.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alteration in intestinal permeability may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of both the progression of some chronic liver diseases and the onset of some complications in patients with liver cirrhosis.
To investigate the relationships between intestinal permeability, portal hypertension, alcohol use, plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide, expressed as s-nitrosothiols, and nitrite levels in patients with various types and degrees of chronic liver diseases.
134 healthy volunteers and 83 patients with chronic liver damage entered the study. Intestinal permeability was assessed with the lactulose/mannitol test. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and nitrite and total s-nitrosothiols were determined.
Intestinal permeability was altered in patients with advanced liver disease and impaired in 15-35% of patients without cirrhosis. Independent factors for intestinal permeability alteration were age, portal hypertension, alcohol use, and diabetes. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and nitrosothiols were significantly higher in patients with altered intestinal permeability.
An intestinal permeability evaluation in patients with chronic liver diseases might clarify the significance of intestinal permeability in the pathophysiology of both the progression of liver damage, and the occurrence of complications that accompany liver cirrhosis.