[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the clinical and metabolic effects of full-mouth scaling and root planing (FMSRP) compared to partial-mouth scaling and root planing (PMSRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, and it assessed the impact of the glycemic status on the clinical and metabolic response to periodontal therapy.
In this clinical trial, 18 subjects with diabetes received FMSRP in a maximum of 24 hours, and 18 subjects received PMSRP in a maximum of 21 days. Visible plaque accumulation, bleeding on probing, suppuration, probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were obtained at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-therapy. Baseline HbA1c values > or =9% and <9% defined subjects with poorly and better-controlled diabetes, respectively.
All clinical parameters improved after therapy (P <0.05). No significant differences were observed between treatment groups for clinical and metabolic parameters at any time (P >0.05). There were no changes in the HbA1c levels after therapy (P >0.05). No subject reported any adverse effects during the study. Individuals with better-controlled diabetes achieved a lower mean CAL at 6 months post-therapy, when FMSRP and PMSRP were evaluated together (P <0.05).
FMSRP and PMSRP were equally effective in treating chronic periodontitis in subjects with type 2 diabetes, without significant improvements in the glycemic control at 3 and 6 months. Considering the periodontal therapy as a whole (FMSRP plus PMSRP), subjects with better-controlled diabetes exhibited a benefit in CAL at 6 months compared to subjects with poorly controlled disease.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of inflammatory- [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-4, and IL-10] and osteoclastogenesis-related factors [receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)] in sites exhibiting different severities of peri-implant disease.
Peri-implant soft tissue biopsies (n=48) were harvested from healthy implant (HI), mucositis (MC), initial peri-implantitis (IP) and severe peri-implantitis (SP) sites.
IL-12 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels were higher in SP, followed by IP and MC (P <0.05). IL-4 was higher in HI, followed by MC, SP and IP (P <0.05). IL-10 was the lowest in HI, while no differences were detected among the diseased groups (P>0.05). OPG mRNA levels were higher in HI, followed by IP, SP and MC, whereas RANKL was increased as the peri-implantitis severity increased (P<0.05). The highest OPG/RANKL ratio was observed in HI and the lowest in SP (P<0.01).
These findings suggest that expressions of inflammatory- and osteoclastogenesis-related factors may play an important role in the onset and severity of the peri-implant diseases.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Clinical Oral Implants Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to clinically and immunologically assess the effects of mechanical anti-infective therapies for mucositis and peri-implantitis and to compare the levels of cytokines in untreated and treated peri-implant diseased sites to healthy ones.
Titanium dental implants were assigned to one of the following groups: healthy (n = 10) = control; mucositis (n = 10) = mechanical debridement using abrasive sodium carbonate air-powder and resin curets; and peri-implantitis (n = 20) = open surgical debridement using abrasive sodium carbonate air-powder and resin curets. Visible plaque accumulation, marginal bleeding, bleeding on probing, suppuration, and probing depth were assessed at baseline for all groups and at 3 months after therapies for diseased groups. At these times, the total amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, -10, and -12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
At 3 months, the anti-infective treatments resulted in a significant improvement in all clinical parameters for mucositis and peri-implantitis (P <0.05). Moreover, the total amounts of TNF-alpha in PICF were significantly higher in untreated diseased implants compared to healthy ones, and the OPG/RANKL ratio was higher for healthy implants than for untreated peri-implantitis (P <0.05). TNF-alpha levels were significantly reduced for both diseased groups (P <0.05), achieving the same level as the healthy group at 3 months after therapies (P >0.05).
The proposed anti-infective therapies may locally modulate the levels of TNF-alpha and the OPG/RANKL ratio and improve clinical parameters around peri-implant tissues.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of mechanical anti-infective therapies for mucositis and peri-implantitis.
Subjects with at least one dental implant were assigned to healthy (n=10), mucositis (n=12) or peri-implantitis (n=13) groups. Implants with mucositis or peri-implantitis were decontaminated by means of teflon curettes and abrasive sodium carbonate air-powder, performed by an open flap for peri-implantitis and without surgery for mucositis. Visible plaque (PI), marginal bleeding (MB), bleeding on probing (BOP), suppuration (SUP), probing depth (PD) and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL) were assessed at baseline and at 3 months after therapies. At the same time points, submucosal plaque samples were collected from each implant and analyzed by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for 40 bacterial species.
All clinical parameters improved at 3 months post-therapy in mucositis and peri-implantitis groups (P<0.05). The mean reduction in rCAL (+/-SD) was 1.4+/-1.2 mm and 2.3+/-1.6 mm, and it was 1.3+/-1.2 mm and 3.1+/-1.7 mm in PD (+/-SD) for mucositis and peri-implantitis, respectively. Levels of Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Parvimonas micra, and of Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, were significantly reduced after peri-implantitis therapy and after mucositis therapy, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, counts of Porphyromons gingivalis, Treponema socranskii and the proportions of red complex were reduced in both groups at 3 months after treatments (P<0.05).
Mechanical therapies alone were effective in treating mucositis and peri-implantitis over a period of 3 months. The open debridement procedure showed clinical and microbiological benefits on the treatment of peri-implantitis and could be safely used as a standard control group for future studies.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Clinical Oral Implants Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of peri-implant diseases around Branemark system implants in Brazilians and the possible relationship with periodontal bone loss, systemic condition, and demographic profile. A total of 113 individuals were enrolled in this study, and they received 347 implants. The implants were clinically and radiographically examined and diagnosed as healthy implants, mucositis, or peri-implantitis. The demographic and systemic profiles of the individuals were assessed via questionnaires, and the time of loading was obtained from files. The presence of periodontal bone loss in partially edentulous patients was determined by standardized radiographic evaluation. With regard to implants, the prevalence was 60.5% (n = 210), 32% (n = 111), and 7.5% (n = 26) for healthy tissues, mucositis, and peri-implantitis, respectively. No correlation was found between peri-implant tissue conditions and socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking status, gender, age, diabetes mellitus, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Statistically significant positive correlations were found in implants with mucositis and peri-implantitis in relation to time of loading and with peri-implantitis in relation to periodontal bone loss in the 4 quadrants (P < .05). Presence of peri-implant diseases may be associated with the increasing time of loading and generalized periodontal bone loss.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Oral Implantology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of the Er:YAG laser, an ultrasonic system, and manual curette on dentine root surface by roughness and micro-morphological analysis.
Thirty-six flattened bovine roots were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: group 1 (n = 12): Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), 120 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz, 8.4 J/cm2; group 2 (n = 12): ultrasonic system; and group 3 (n = 12): manual curette. The mean surface roughness (Ra) of each sample was measured using a profilometer before and after the treatments. The micro-morphology of the treated and untreated (control) root surfaces was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 50x and 1000x magnification.
Analysis with the profilometer showed that for equal times of instrumentation, the smoothest surfaces were produced by the Er:YAG laser and the ultrasonic system, followed by the curette (p < 0.05). Morphological analyses demonstrated that treatment with the Er:YAG laser produced some areas with an irregular surface, craters, and ablation of the intertubular dentin. The smear layer was removed and dentine tubules were opened by both curettes and the ultrasonic system. The micro-morphology of the dentine root surface after ultrasonic treatment, however, demonstrated randomly distributed areas cratering.
All instruments increased the roughness of the dentine root surface after treatment; however, the curette produced rougher surfaces than the other devices. SEM analysis revealed distinct root surface profiles produced by the three devices.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Photomedicine and Laser Surgery