[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins that, upon recruitment to an activated G-protein-coupled receptor, can promote
desensitization of G-protein signaling and receptor internalization while simultaneously eliciting an independent signal.
The result of β-arrestin signaling depends upon the activating receptor. For example, activation of two Gαq-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), results in drastically different signaling events. PAR2 promotes β-arrestin-dependent membrane-sequestered extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation, cofilin activation,
and cell migration, whereas NK1R promotes nuclear ERK1/2 activation and proliferation. Using bioluminescence resonance energy
transfer to monitor receptor/β-arrestin interactions in real time, we observe that PAR2 has a higher apparent affinity for both β-arrestins than does NK1R, recruits them at a faster rate, and exhibits more rapid
desensitization of the G-protein signal. Furthermore, recruitment of β-arrestins to PAR2 does not require prior Gαq signaling events, whereas inhibition of Gαq signaling intermediates inhibits recruitment of β-arrestins to NK1R. Using chimeric receptors in which the C terminus of
PAR2 is fused to the N terminus of NK1R and vice versa and a critical Ser/Thr mutant of PAR2, we demonstrate that interactions between β-arrestins and specific phosphoresidues in the C termini of each receptor are
crucial for determining the rate and magnitude of β-arrestin recruitment as well as the ultimate signaling outcome.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the ability of different trypsin-revealed tethered ligand (TL) sequences of rat proteinase-activated receptor 2 (rPAR(2)) and the corresponding soluble TL-derived agonist peptides to trigger agonist-biased signaling. To do so, we mutated the proteolytically revealed TL sequence of rPAR(2) and examined the impact on stimulating intracellular calcium transients and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The TL receptor mutants, rPAR(2)-Leu(37)Ser(38), rPAR(2)-Ala(37-38), and rPAR(2)-Ala(39-42) were compared with the trypsin-revealed wild-type rPAR(2) TL sequence, S(37)LIGRL(42)-. Upon trypsin activation, all constructs stimulated MAP kinase signaling, but only the wt-rPAR(2) and rPAR(2)-Ala(39-42) triggered calcium signaling. Furthermore, the TL-derived synthetic peptide SLAAAA-NH2 failed to cause PAR(2)-mediated calcium signaling but did activate MAP kinase, whereas SLIGRL-NH2 triggered both calcium and MAP kinase signaling by all receptors. The peptides AAIGRL-NH2 and LSIGRL-NH2 triggered neither calcium nor MAP kinase signals. Neither rPAR(2)-Ala(37-38) nor rPAR(2)-Leu(37)Ser(38) constructs recruited beta-arrestins-1 or -2 in response to trypsin stimulation, whereas both beta-arrestins were recruited to these mutants by SLIGRL-NH2. The lack of trypsin-triggered beta-arrestin interactions correlated with impaired trypsin-activated TL-mutant receptor internalization. Trypsin-stimulated MAP kinase activation by the TL-mutated receptors was not blocked by inhibitors of Galpha(i) (pertussis toxin), Galpha(q) [N-cyclohexyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methylindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide (GP2A)], Src kinase [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], or the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor [4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline (AG1478)], but was inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor (R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide, 2HCl (Y27362). The data indicate that the proteolytically revealed TL sequence(s) and the mode of its presentation to the receptor (tethered versus soluble) can confer biased signaling by PAR(2), its arrestin recruitment, and its internalization. Thus, PAR(2) can signal to multiple pathways that are differentially triggered by distinct proteinase-revealed TLs or by synthetic signal-selective activating peptides.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Molecular pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-arrestins-1 and 2 are known to play important roles in desensitization of membrane receptors and facilitation of signal transduction pathways. It has been previously shown that beta-arrestins are required for signal termination, internalization, and ERK1/2 activation downstream of protease-activated-receptor-2 (PAR-2), but it is unclear whether they are functionally redundant or mediate specific events. Here, we demonstrate that in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from beta-arrestin-1/2 knockout mice, G alpha q signaling by PAR-2, as measured by mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+), is prolonged. Only expression of beta-arrestin-1 shortened the signal duration, whereas either beta-arrestin-1 or 2 was able to restore PKC-induced receptor desensitization. Beta-arrestin-1 also mediated early, while beta-arrestin-2 mediated delayed, receptor internalization and membrane-associated ERK1/2 activation. While beta-arrestin-1 colocalized with a lysosomal marker (LAMP-1), beta-arrestin-2 did not, suggesting a specific role for beta-arrestin-1 in lysosomal receptor degradation. Together, these data suggest distinct temporal and functional roles for beta-arrestins in PAR-2 signaling, desensitization, and internalization.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · AJP Cell Physiology