[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction:
In this study we examined oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage resulting from acute strength, aerobic, or concurrent exercise in rats.
The animals were divided into control (C), strength (SE), aerobic (AE), and combined (CE) exercise groups. They were euthanized at 3 different time-points (6, 24, and 48 h) after acute exercise.
SE exercise rats had increased dichlorofluorescein oxidation at 6 h post-exercise and decreased superoxide dismutase activity at all time-points. Glutathione peroxidase activity and sulfhydryl levels were increased in the AE group at 48 h post-exercise. Serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in the SE and CE groups at 24 h and in the AE group at 48 h. Echo intensity was elevated at 24 h for all groups.
Forty-eight hours was sufficient for complete recovery from oxidative stress and muscle damage in the SE and CE groups, but not in the AE group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Lectin II from the marine sponge Axinella corrugata (ACL-II) was purified by affinity chromatography on rabbit erythrocytic stroma incorporated into a polyacrylamide gel, followed by gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 44 column. Purified ACL-II is a lectin with an Mr of 80 kDa and 78 kDa, estimated by SDS-PAGE and by FPLC on Superose 12 HR column, respectively. ACL-II mainly agglutinates native rabbit erythrocytes and this hemagglutinating activity is independent of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), but is inhibited by d-galactose, chitin and N-acetyl derivatives, with the exception of GalNAc. ACL-II is stable for up to 65 °C for 30 min, with a better stability at a pH range of 2 to 6. In contrast, ACL-I displays a strong mitogenic and cytotoxic effect.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The N-acetyl amino-carbohydrate specific lectin (ACL-I) was previously identified and purified by us from the marine sponge Axinella corrugata (phylum Porifera, class Demospongiae). The distribution of the specific lectin within the tissue of the sponge was studied by bright-field optical microscopy immunohistochemistry in order to better understand its physiological role in the sponge. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against purified ACL-I in mice and tested by Western blot technique. The immunohistochemical analysis of ACL-I in cross sections of A. corrugata showed that this lectin is found inside the denominated spherulous cells, which contain vesicles that store the lectin. Some evidence is shown that ACL-I might also be present in the extracellular matrix. It was not possible to demonstrate by the immunohistochemical technique if ACL-I is colocalized in both the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm of the spherulous cells.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Acta histochemica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The lectin from the marine sponge Axinella corrugata (ACL-I) was purified by affinity chromatography on rabbit erythrocytic stroma incorporated into a polyacrylamide gel followed by gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 44 column. Purified ACL-I is a hexameric glycoprotein with a Mr of 82.3 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE and 78.5 kDa by FPLC on Superose 12 HR column. The pI of lectin is 6.3 and ACL-I is constituted of 13.9 kDa similar subunits some of them linked by disulphide bridges. This lectin agglutinates native rabbit, goat and dog erythrocytes and in less extent human erythrocytes. The hemagglutinating activity is independent of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), but it is strongly inhibited by carbohydrates containing N-acetyl groups. ACL-I is stable up to 70 degrees C for 30 min, with optimum pH between 7 and 8, and it is also resistant to enzymatic proteolysis in vitro. In the presence of reducing or denaturant agents, the lectin activity decreases. ACL-I displays chemotactic effect on rat neutrophil in vitro which is inhibited by N-acetyl-d-glucosamine.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Glycans are key structures involved in biological processes such as cell attachment, migration, and invasion. Information coded on cell-surface glycans is frequently deciphered by proteins, as lectins, that recognize specific carbohydrate topology. Here, we describe the fine carbohydrate specificity of Euphorbia milii lectin (EML). Competitive assays using various sugars showed that GalNAc was the strongest inhibitor, and that the hydroxyl axial position of C4 and acetamido on C2 of GalNAc are critical points of EML recognition. A hydrophobic locus adjacent to GalNAc is also an important region for EML binding. Direct binding assays of EML revealed a stereochemical requirement for a structure adjacent to terminal GalNAc, showing that GalNAc residue is a necessary but not sufficient condition for EML interaction. The capacity of EML to bind epithelial tumor cells makes it a potentially useful tool for study of some over-expressed GalNAc glycoconjugates.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aqueous extracts of twenty species of sea sponges of the Brazilian Atlantic coast were tested with the aim of searching the presence of lectinic and hemolytic activity. Hemagglutinating activity for human erythrocytes and for distinct animals were found in 12 of the 20 tested extracts. The extracts of Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrosia collectrix, Cinachyrella alloclada and Guitarra sp1. were the ones that presented highest hemagglutinating activity. Ten of the 12 hemagglutinating extracts had the activity inhibited by one or more sugars or glycoproteins. The lectin from Chondrilla nucula was resistant to thermal denaturation when heated up to 100 ºC for 60 minutes. Hemolytic activity was only found in the extracts from Petromica citrina and Acervochalina sp. The species of sea sponges that showed major potential for futures studies of their lectins were Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula and Chondrosia collectrix, due to the highest hemagglutinating activity presented by their extracts, allied to the highest specific activity.
Preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Extratos aquosos de vinte espécies de esponjas da costa Atlântica brasileira foram testados para verificação da presença de atividade lectínica e atividade hemolítica. Hemaglutinação para eritrócitos humanos e de distintos animais foi evidenciada em 12 dos 20 extratos testados. Os extratos das espécies Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrosia collectrix, Cinachyrella alloclada e Guitarra sp1. foram os que apresentaram maior atividade hemaglutinante. Dos doze extratos com atividade hemaglutinante dez tiveram a atividade inibida por um ou mais açúcares e/ou glicoproteínas. A lectina do extrato de Chondrilla nucula foi resistente à desnaturação térmica quando aquecida a 100 ºC por 60 minutos. Atividade hemolítica foi encontrada apenas nos extratos de Petromica citrina e Acervochalina sp. As espécies que apresentaram maior potencial para futuros estudos de suas lectinas foram Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula e Chondrosia collectrix, em vista da maior atividade hemaglutinante apresentada por seus extratos, aliada à maior atividade específica.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A lectin from the exudate of Sechium edule Sw fruit (Chayote) was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 column and by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. The lectin consists of two identical non-covalently bound subunits and has a mean Mr value of 44 000 evaluated by SDS—PAGE without preboiling the sample. The Mr of the subunit was estimated as 22 000 by SDS—PAGE and also by a calibrated Sephadex G-100 column. The lectin is not glycosylated and it does not require Ca2+ and Mg2+ for agglutinating activity toward erythrocytes from human and other animal species. The hemagglutinating activity is strongly inhibited by chitin oligosaccharides but not by N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. This lectin is not mitogenic towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes and comprises about 9.5% of the exudate proteins. It is rich in glycine, leucine, asparagine/aspartic acid, glutamine/glutamic acid, and serine residues, without detectable amounts of methionine and hydroxyproline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at pH 4.4 was used to study the concentration dependence of absolute mobility of crotamine. Within amounts ranging from 5-65 micrograms the toxin appeared in at least three n-mer species which were characterized by their geometrical mean radius R and molecular weight Mr estimation. The R and Mr values of crotamine bands were obtained from equations described in the literature and by using standard polypeptides and proteins submitted to the same experimental conditions. When amounts of up to 20 micrograms were assayed by PAGE the bands had a monomer molecular weight value of 4650 and R was 1.08 nm. From 20-35 micrograms the toxin migrated as dimer (Mr 10,000) with an R value of 1.42 nm. However, amounts higher than 35 micrograms crotamine were mostly resolved in a "two-band" pattern with R and Mr values corresponding to higher associated species.