[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stratakis CA, Tichomirowa MA, Boikos S, Azevedo MF, Lodish M, Martari M, Verma S, Daly AF, Raygada M, Keil MF, Papademetriou J, Drori-Herishanu L, Horvath A, Tsang KM, Nesterova M, Franklin S, Vanbellinghen J-F, Bours V, Salvatori R, Beckers A. The role of germline AIP, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2C mutations in causing pituitary adenomas in a large cohort of children, adolescents, and patients with genetic syndromes.
The prevalence of germline mutations in MEN1, AIP, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and CDKN2CI is unknown among pediatric patients with pituitary adenomas (PA). In this study, we screened children with PA for mutations in these genes; somatic GNAS mutations were also studied in a limited number of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL)-secreting PA. We studied 74 and 6 patients with either isolated Cushing disease (CD) or GH- or PRL-secreting PA, respectively. We also screened four pediatric patients with CD, and four with GH/PRL-secreting tumors who had some syndromic features. There was one AIP mutation (p.Lys103Arg) among 74 CD patients. Two MEN1 mutations that occurred in patients with recurrent or difficult-to-treat disease were found among patients with CD. There was one MEN1 and three AIP mutations (p.Gln307ProfsX104, p.Pro114fsX, p.Lys241X) among pediatric patients with isolated GH- or PRL-secreting PA and one additional MEN1 mutation in a patient with positive family history. There were no mutations in the PRKAR1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2C or GNAS genes. Thus, germline AIP or MEN1 gene mutations are frequent among pediatric patients with GH- or PRL-secreting PA but are significantly rarer in pediatric CD; PRKAR1A mutations are not present in PA outside of Carney complex.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Clinical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor (GHRHR) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors family. It is expressed almost exclusively in the anterior pituitary, where it is necessary for somatotroph cells proliferation and for GH synthesis and secretion. Mutations in the human GHRHR gene (GHRHR) can impair ligand binding and signal transduction, and have been estimated to cause about 10% of autosomal recessive familial isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Mutations reported to date include five splice donor site mutations, two microdeletions, two nonsense mutations, seven missense mutations, and one mutation in the promoter. These mutations have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, and heterozygous individuals do not show signs of IGHD, although the presence of an intermediate phenotype has been hypothesized. Conversely, patients with biallelic mutations have low serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and GH levels (with absent or reduced GH response to exogenous stimuli), resulting--if not treated--in proportionate dwarfism. This chapter reviews the biology of the GHRHR, the mutations that affect its gene and their effects in homozygous and heterozygous individuals.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Progress in molecular biology and translational science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Reduced longevity observed in hypopituitarism has been attributed to GH deficiency (GHD). It is, however, unclear whether GHD or other confounding factors cause this early mortality. Objective: The aim was to study longevity in subjects from a large kindred with untreated, lifetime isolated GHD (IGHD) due to a homozygous mutation in the GHRH receptor gene and in heterozygous carriers of the mutation. Design, Setting, and Participants: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on three groups. We first compared mortality risk of 65 IGHD individuals and their 128 unaffected siblings from 34 families. We then compared mean age of death of the IGHD to the general population. A transversal study was carried out to compare the rate of heterozygosity for the mutation in two groups of young (20-40 yr old) and old (60-80 yr old) normal-appearing subjects from the same county. Main Outcome Measure: We measured longevity. Results: The risk of death of IGHD subjects was not different from their siblings. Life span in IGHD individuals was shorter than the general population. When stratified by sex, this difference persisted only in females, due to a high frequency of IGHD deaths in females aged 4-20. There was no significant difference in life span between IGHD subjects and siblings or the general population when analyzing subjects who reached age 20. The prevalence of heterozygosity did not differ in young and old groups, suggesting no survival advantage or disadvantage. Conclusions: In a selected genetic background, lifelong untreated IGHD does not affect longevity.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) is familial in 5-30% of patients. The most frequent form (IGHD-IB) has autosomal recessive inheritance, and it is known that it can be caused by mutations in the GHRH receptor (GHRHR) gene or in the GH gene. However, most forms of IGHD-IB have an unknown genetic cause. In normal subjects, muscarinic cholinergic stimulation causes an increase in pituitary GH release, whereas its blockade has the opposite effect, suggesting that a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) is involved in stimulating GH secretion. Five types of mAchR (M(1)-M(5)) exist. A transgenic mouse in which the function of the M(3) receptor was selectively ablated in the central nervous system has isolated GH deficiency similar to animals with defective GHRH or GHRHR gene.
We hypothesized that mAchR mutations may cause a subset of familial IGHD.
After confirming the expression of M(1)-M(5) receptor mRNA in human hypothalamus, we analyzed the index cases of 39 families with IGHD-IB for mutations in the genes encoding for the five receptors. Coding sequences for each of the five mAchRs were subjected to direct sequencing.
In one family, an affected member was homozygous for a M(3) change in codon 65 that replaces valine with isoleucine (V65I). The V65I receptor was expressed in CHO cells where it had normal ability to transmit methacholine signaling.
mAchR mutations are absent or rare (less than 2.6%) in familial IGHD type IB.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolactinomas are rare tumors in prepubertal children. A prolactinoma in a young child may be due to sequence variants in genes that are known to cause these tumors ( MEN1, PRKAR1A, AIP). An 11-year-old boy with a macroprolactinoma was treated with cabergoline and the tumor receded. We studied the patient and his family for genetic causes of this tumor. No mutations were present in the coding sequence of PRKAR1A and AIP. A novel heterozygous substitution (IVS3-7 c>a) was identified in intron 3 of MEN1. We also found an additional PCR amplicon that incorporated the entire intron 3 of the gene (210 bp) in the patient's cDNA. The same amplicon was present with lower intensity in some of the control individuals who were not mutation carriers. Intron 3 harbors an in-frame stop codon and its incorporation is predicted to result in a prematurely terminated protein. We conclude that a novel MEN1 variation was identified in a young boy with prolactinoma and six of his relatives who did not present with prolactinoma or other MEN1 related symptoms. This novel MEN1 variation may be associated with low penetrance of the disease. The IVS3-7 c>a defect is suggested to be pathogenic because it is associated with lower menin levels in the cells of these patients, but its consequences may be mitigated by a variety of factors including changes in transcription and translation of the MEN1 gene.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Hormone and Metabolic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) causes somatic growth impairment. GH has a short half-life and therefore it must be administered by daily subcutaneous injections. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been used to deliver genes to animals, and double-stranded AAV (dsAAV) vectors provide widespread and stable transgene expression. In the present study we tested whether an intramuscular injection of dsAAV vector expressing GH under the control of a muscle creatine kinase regulatory cassette would ensure sufficient systemic GH delivery in conjunction with muscle-specific expression. Virus-injected GHD mice showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in body length and body weight, without reaching full normalization, and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in absolute and relative visceral fat. Quantitative RT-PCR showed preferential GH expression in skeletal muscles that was confirmed by qualitative fluorescence analysis in mice injected with a similar virus expressing green fluorescent protein. The present study shows that systemic GH delivery to GHD animals is possible via a single intramuscular injection of dsAAV carrying a muscle-specific GH-expressing regulatory cassette.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Human gene therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GH is secreted by the somatotropic cells of the pituitary gland, and its deficiency (GHD) impairs longitudinal growth. Due to its short half-life, GH therapy needs administration of GH injections daily. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) can deliver gene therapy to animals with possible future applications in humans. The new generation of double-stranded AAV vectors (dsAAV) provides widespread, strong, and stable transgene expression without toxicity and immune response. To determine whether such a new system could be used to deliver GH to a mouse model of isolated GHD due to ablation of the GHRH knock-out gene (GHRHKO), we have created AAV viral particles containing mouse GH cDNA driven by a cytomegalovirus promoter (dsAAV8-CMV-GH), and tested them in male GHRHKO mice. GHRHKO animals received either a single (low dose) or two (high dose) i.p. injections of dsAAV8-CMV-GH (1x10(11) particles) at the 10th and 11th days of age, or a placebo injection, and were followed up to the 6th or 24th week of life. A single dsAAV8-GH injection caused body length and weight normalization. At week 6, serum GH was higher in mice receiving both virus doses compared with controls, while it was normal at week 24. Serum IGF-1 increased in both virus-treated groups, and it was normal at 24 weeks. GH mRNA expression was detected in liver, skeletal, and heart muscle of virus-injected animals. These data show that normalization of longitudinal growth can be reached in GHD mice using a single injection of a double-stranded adeno-associated virus expressing GH.
Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic peptides derived from the active core of a natural antimicrobial peptide were used as a template for the design of novel bolaamphiphilic peptides and hybrid molecules. The amphiphilic character of the original compounds was modified by using non-natural amino acids (AAs) – such as ω-AA – and varying the hydrophobic content. The outcomes of these modifications were studied focusing on structural and biological properties. Because of the bolaamphiphilic character, the alternation of polar and non-polar AAs and the use of hydrophobic AAs such as tyrosine and leucine, these novel molecules were designed to undergo self-assembly in response to certain stimuli (e.g. a pH increase). This significant property was investigated by means of different tools, such as fluorescence measurements, electron microscopy (EM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD). By using fluorescence it was possible to determine the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the new compounds. Differences in amino acid composition, which were reflected into diverse secondary structures and hydrophobicity (H), resulted in different CAC values and aggregation profiles. The data were consistent with the literature and showed that (i) the aggregation of these basic compounds was triggered by a pH increase, (ii) the use of hydrophobic AA highly augmented the self-assembly tendency while (iii) the presence of proline strongly reduced it. EM revealed the morphology of the peptide assemblies: microtubes and microvesicles were identified and characterised by dimensions of 500 nm to 2 μm. The presence of 3-way junctions and vesicles budding out of the microtubes demonstrated that the self-assembly is a dynamic process. The aggregation was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, by studying the dried peptide assemblies and the significant spectral signs the process left, especially in the amide II envelope. The relationship between hydrophobicity and self-assembly was expanded by experimentally and theoretically determining the hydrophobic content of the novel bolaamphiphiles. Data from liquid chromatography and computational calculations (two common ways used to determine the hydrophobicity of a given molecule) correlated well with the tendency to self-assemble, as expressed by CAC values. Importantly, some structural parameters (such as the presence of β-turn induced by proline) also showed significant influence on the aggregation, highly limiting the role of the peptides’ hydrophobicity. These novel peptide bolaamphiphiles displayed a very low haemolytic action and retained some antimicrobial activity at high concentrations against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Unfortunately, the activity was greatly reduced at low concentrations, as clearly demonstrated by the use of two antimicrobial tests. The inability to provoke cell lysis was also evident when using liposomes mimicking a negative bacterial membrane. The loss of activity is possibly related to the modifications of the three-dimensional structure caused by the use of ω-AA and proline, which strongly alter the secondary structure. The results of this study were valuable in terms of understanding the relationships between self-assembly and structural parameters, such as AA compositions, hydrophobicity and secondary structure. Possible applications of the synthesised compounds were however limited as a result of the loss of the biological activity at low concentrations. Thesis (PhD (Chemistry and Polymer Science)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.