Margarita Gutiérrez-Rodríguez

Mexican Institute of Social Security, Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico

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Publications (7)12.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: During carcinogenesis it is known that growth factors and cytokines from stromal and inflammatory cells from the microenvironment promote angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. However, the participation of macrophages and mast cells in these processes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mast cell and macrophage density with blood and lymphatic vessels in various stages of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Tissue sections from archival paraffin-embedded samples from cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) 1, 2, 3, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma were used. Immunohistochemical staining was done using the following antibodies: anti-LYVE-1; anti-CD31; anti-CD68, and anti-tryptase. Our results showed a significant increase in the number of macrophages in carcinoma in situ, a correlation between lymphatic vessels and macrophages in premalignant lesions CIN 2, and a correlation between mast cells and blood vessels in both CIN 2 and carcinoma in situ. In conclusion, our data underscore the importance of the recruitment of macrophages and mast cells in the development of tumor-associated blood and lymphatic capillaries.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Glucosamine (GlcN)-induced insulin resistance is associated with an increase in O-linked-N-acetylglucosaminylated modified proteins (O-GlcNAcylated proteins). The role played by O-GlcNAc-selective-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase), which removes O-N-acetyl-glucosamine residues from O-GlcNAcylated proteins, has not yet been demonstrated. We investigated whether GlcN-induced whole-body insulin resistance is related to tissue O-GlcNAcase activity and mRNA expression. GlcN (30 mumol/kg/min) or physiological saline (control) was intravenously infused into Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 h. After GlcN treatment, rats were subjected to the following: intravenous glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test or removal of the liver, muscle and pancreas. GlcN was found to provoke hyperglycemia compared to control (8.6 +/- 0.41 vs. 4.82 +/- 0.17 mM, p < 0.001). The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) increased (15.76 +/- 1.47 vs. 10.14 +/- 1.41, p < 0.001) and the beta-cell function index (HOMA-beta) diminished (182.69 +/- 22.37 vs. 592.01 +/- 103, p < 0.001). Liver glucose concentration was higher in the GlcN group than in the control group (0.37 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.038 mmol/g dry weight, p < 0.001). Insulin release index (insulin/glucose) was less in the GlcN group than in the control (2.2 +/- 0.1 vs. 8 +/- 0.8 at 120 min, p < 0.001). In the GlcN group, muscle O-GlcNAcase activity diminished (0.28 +/- 0.019 vs. 0.36 +/- 0.018 nmol of p-nitrophenyl/mg protein/min, p < 0.001), and K(m) increased (1.51 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.1 mM, p < 0.001) compared to the control. In the GlcN group, O-GlcNAcase activity/mRNA expression was altered (0.6 +/- 0.07 vs. 1 +/- 0.09 of control, p < 0.05). In conclusion, O-GlcNAcase activity is posttranslationally inhibited during GlcN-induced insulin resistance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of granulosa cells during follicular atresia is preceded by oxidative stress, partly due to a drop in the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Under oxidative stress, GSH regeneration is dependent on the adequate supply of NADPH by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In this study, we analyzed the changes of G6PD, GSH, and oxidative stress of granulosa cells and follicular liquid and its association with apoptosis during atresia of small (4-6 mm) and large (>6 mm) sheep antral follicles. G6PD activity was found to be higher in granulosa cells of healthy small rather than large follicles, with similar GSH concentration in both cases. During atresia, increased apoptosis and protein oxidation, as well as a drop in GSH levels, were observed in follicles of both sizes. Furthermore, the activity of G6PD decreased in atretic small follicles, but not in large ones. GSH decreased and protein oxidation increased in follicular fluid. This was dependent on the degree of atresia, whereas the changes in G6PD activity were based on the type of follicle. The higher G6PD activity in the small follicles could be related to granulosa cell proliferation, follicular growth, and a lower sensitivity to oxidative stress when compared with large follicles. The results also indicate that GSH concentration in atretic follicles depends on other factors in addition to G6PD, such as de novo synthesis or activity of other NADPH-producing enzymes. Finally, lower G6PD activity in large follicles indicating a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress associated to apoptosis progression in follicle atresia.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Reproduction
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    ABSTRACT: The DD genotype of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been suggested as a major contributor of diabetic nephropathy in several populations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether micro/macroalbuminuria is associated with ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in Mexican Mestizos with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 435 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, of whom 233 had albuminuria, were characterized for the ACE I/D polymorphism by the polymerase chain reaction method. Clinical and biochemical characteristics and frequencies according to DD, ID and II genotypes in patients with and without albuminuria showed no significant differences. However, only females with micro/macroalbuminuria showed higher frequency of a DD genotype than those without albuminuria (27.9%, 21.2% and 10.5%, respectively; P <or= 0.044). In addition, female patients with macroalbuminuria without dialysis showed no significant differences with patients undergoing dialysis. The ACE DD genotype is a risk factor for the development of renal disease in Mexican Mestizo females with type 2 diabetes, indicating a possible DD genotype-associated sex effect in renal disease.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: It is well-known that there are different tumor-type-dependent metastatic patterns. For example, in carcinomas metastatic spread is preferentially via the lymphatic system by which they reach regional lymph nodes through pre-existent afferent lymph vessels and/or newly formed lymph capillaries; while in sarcomas the favored pathway is through bloodvessels. These metastatic patterns have been used for many years by clinicians and surgeons for staging and tumor resection, particularly in the case of breast cancer. Recently this knowledge has been applied to detection and resection of sentinel lymph nodes. The lymphatic system drains the interstitial fluid from tissues and reincorporates it into the blood flow; in addition, it forms part of the host's immune defense and in pathological conditions, induces different types of lymph edema and participates in tumor invasion and metastasis. Although, the study of lymphangiogenesis was stagnated for several decades, it was not until a few years ago that biomolecular mechanisms were discovered and many specific markers are now in use to study the process of tumor dissemination and metastasis. There is a tendency to utilize molecular knowledge in clinical settings for grading and estimating prognostic significance of tumors as well as to develop specific therapeutic strategies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Gaceta medica de Mexico
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    ABSTRACT: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are characterized by their great diversity of genes and alleles. Population studies have identified the presence of a broad variety of genotypes. In Mexico, there are diverse ethnic groups representing 9% of the total population and the rest is composed of Mestizos with a more varied biology. For the purpose of this study, genotyping was performed in Mestizos, in Mexico City inhabitants, and in three ethnic groups. The frequencies of genes KIR2DL2, 2DL5, 2DS1-3, 2DS5, and 3DS1 showed a greater variability in the groups studied. A total of 12 different genotypes were identified, the higher number for the Mestizos and the lower number for the Tarahumaras. Genotype 1 was found at a greater frequency in all the groups, except for the Tarahumaras, in which genotype 4 was more frequent. The frequency of genotypes 4 and 8 in Mexicans was higher than that for other populations analyzed. By subtyping of KIR3DL1, 3DL2, 2DL1, and 2DL3, two B haplotypes were identified in families; both were absent in Caucasian families. Our results indicated a greater diversity of genes in the Mestizos group than in the ethnic groups.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Human Immunology
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