- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the recent decades significant improvements in the understanding of laryngeal molecular biology allowed a better characterization of the tumor. However, despite increased molecular knowledge and clinical efforts, survival of patients with laryngeal cancer remains the same as 30 years ago. Although this result may not make major conclusions as preservation approaches were not broadly used until the time of database collection, it seems to be clear that there is still window for improvement. Although the cornerstone for laryngeal cancer eradication is to implement smoking cessation programs, survival progresses will be hopefully seen in the future. Introducing molecular biomarkers as predictive factors to determine which patients will benefit of preservation treatments may become one of the next steps to improve survival. Furthermore, the development of new therapeutic modalities joint to biomarkers to selectively apply such new therapy in these patients may help to define new modalities with improved survival. New inhibitors against Notch pathway, EGFR, VRK1 or DNA damage repair may become gold standard if we are able to identify patients that may benefit from them, either on survival or functional larynx preservation. It is the moment for an inflexion point on the way laryngeal cancer is clinically managed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larynx cancer organ preservation treatments with chemo and radiotherapy have substantially improved laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival. However, both of them lead to a high incidence of acute and chronic toxicities and a significant number of patients relapse. To date, there is no evidence available to establish the group of patients that may benefit from preservation approaches and clinical criteria such as primary tumor extension or pretreatment tracheotomy are not validated. MAP17 is a small non-glycosylated membrane protein overexpressed in carcinomas. The tumoral behavior induced by MAP17 is associated with reactive oxygen species production in which SGLT1 seems involved. In this study we found that the levels of MAP17 were related to clinical findings and survival in a cohort of 58 patients with larynx cancer. MAP17 expression is associated with overall survival (p<0.001) and laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival (p=0.002). Locoregional control in patients with high MAP17 showed better outcomes than those with low MAP17 (p=0.016). Besides, a positive correlation was observed between MAP17 expression and SGLT (p=0.022) and the combination of high levels of MAP17/SGLT also led to an increased overall survival (p=0,028). These findings suggest that MAP17, alone or in combination with SGLT1, may become a novel predictive biomarker for laryngeal carcinoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current larynx preservation treatments have achieved an improvement of laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival (LDS) but lead to significant toxicities and recurrences. At present, there is no evidence to select the group of patients that may benefit from preservation approaches instead of surgery. Therefore, laryngeal biomarkers could facilitate pretreatment identification of patients who could respond to chemoradiation-based therapy. In this study, we evaluated retrospectively 53 patients with larynx cancer to determine whether gH2AX phosphorylation (pH2AX) alone or in combination with the membrane protein MAP17 (PDZK1IP1) could be used as prognostic biomarkers. We also evaluated whether the completion of cisplatin treatment and radiotherapy could predict survival in combination with pH2AX.We found that the dose of cisplatin received but not the length of the radiotherapy influenced LDS. High-pH2AX expression was associated with prolonged LDS (HR 0.26, p = 0.02) while MAP17 correlated with overall survival (OS) (HR 0.98, p = 0.05). High-MAP17 and high-pH2AX combined analysis showed improved LDS (with 61.35 months vs 32.2 months, p = 0.05) and OS (with 66.6 months vs 39.8 months, p = 0.01). Furthermore, the subgroup of high-pH2AX and optimal dose of cisplatin was also associated with OS (72 months vs 38.6 months, p = 0.03) and LDS (66.9 months vs 27 months, p = 0.017). These findings suggest that pH2AX alone or better in combination with MAP17 may become a novel and valuable prognostic biomarker for patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated with preservation approaches.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Non-hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Genome–wide association studies (GWAS) are useful for identifying such genetic susceptibility factors. However, the single loci so far associated with CRC only represent a fraction of the genetic risk for CRC development in the general population. Therefore, many other genetic risk variants alone and in combination must still remain to be discovered. The aim of this work was to search for genetic risk factors for CRC, by performing single-locus and two-locus GWAS in the Spanish population. Results A total of 801 controls and 500 CRC cases were included in the discovery GWAS dataset. 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s from single-locus and 243 SNPs from two-locus association analyses were selected for replication in 423 additional CRC cases and 1382 controls. In the meta-analysis, one SNP, rs3987 at 4q26, reached GWAS significant p-value (p = 4.02×10−8), and one SNP pair, rs1100508 CG and rs8111948 AA, showed a trend for two-locus association (p = 4.35×10−11). Additionally, our GWAS confirmed the previously reported association with CRC of five SNPs located at 3q36.2 (rs10936599), 8q24 (rs10505477), 8q24.21(rs6983267), 11q13.4 (rs3824999) and 14q22.2 (rs4444235). Conclusions Our GWAS for CRC patients from Spain confirmed some previously reported associations for CRC and yielded a novel candidate risk SNP, located at 4q26. Epistasis analyses also yielded several novel candidate susceptibility pairs that need to be validated in independent analyses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. However, the genetic factors influencing its appearance remain far from being fully characterized. Recently, a G>A functional transition mapping the 3' untranslated region of the CXCL12 gene (rs1801157) has been found to be under-represented among rectal cancer patients when compared to colon cancer patients from a Swedish series. Here we present the results from an independent analysis of CXCL12 rs1801157 in a larger CRC series of Spanish origin in order to analyse the robustness of this association within a different European population. No significant difference was observed between controls and colon or rectal cancer patients. We were also unable to find a correlation between rs1801157 and different prognostic markers such as metastasis development or disease-free survival time. The epidemiologic data involving CXCL12 rs1801157 in colorectal cancer risk are discussed.