[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin is a chemotactic agonist recently identified as the ligand of ChemR23, a serpentine receptor expressed by mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). This study shows that blood CD56(low)CD16(+) natural killer (NK) cells selectively express functional ChemR23 and that this receptor is coexpressed with CXCR1, the CXCL8 receptor, and the KIR receptors. In vitro culturing of NK cells with IL-2 or IL-15 induced a delayed and time-dependent down-regulation of ChemR23 that was associated with the inhibition of NK cell migration to chemerin. Biopsies obtained from patients with oral lichen planus presented an infiltration of CD94(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells that coexpressed ChemR23. The same biopsies were infiltrated by myeloid, DC-SIGN(+) and plasmacytoid, CD123(+)BDCA2(+), ChemR23(+) dendritic cells that were occasionally associated with NK cells. In the same histologic sections, chemerin was expressed by inflamed dermal endothelium. These findings propose a role for the ChemR23/chemerin axis in the recruitment of blood NK cells and strongly implicate chemerin as a key factor for the colocalization of NK cells and DC subsets in pathologic peripheral tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin is a chemotactic agent that was recently identified as the ligand of ChemR23, a serpentine receptor expressed by activated macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). This paper shows that blood plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs express functional ChemR23. Recombinant chemerin induced the transmigration of plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs across an endothelial cell monolayer. In secondary lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and tonsils), ChemR23 is expressed by CD123(+) plasmacytoid DCs and by CD1a(+) DC-SIGN(+) DCs in the interfollicular T cell area. ChemR23(+) DCs were also observed in dermis from normal skin, whereas Langerhans cells were negative. Chemerin expression was selectively detected on the luminal side of high endothelial venules in secondary lymphoid organs and in dermal endothelial vessels of lupus erythematosus skin lesions. Chemerin(+) endothelial cells were surrounded by ChemR23(+) plasmacytoid DCs. Thus, ChemR23 is expressed and functional in plasmacytoid DCs, a property shared only by CXCR4 among chemotactic receptors. This finding, together with the selective expression of the cognate ligand on the luminal side of high endothelial venules and inflamed endothelium, suggests a key role of the ChemR23/chemerin axis in directing plasmacytoid DC trafficking.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A close relationship exists between angiogenesis and the formation of vascular lesions. The development of the vascular system in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) may thus represent a model to study the effects of the deregulation of endothelial cell behaviour. Alterations of the developing vascular tree of the CAM were observed after exposure to murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells overexpressing human fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) cDNA (pZipFGF2 MAE cells), or to their conditioned medium (CM). pZipFGF2 MAE cells injected into the allantoic sac or applied on to the CAM of day 8-9 chick embryos induce neovascularization and the appearance of haemangioma-like lesions. This activity was not prevented by anti-FGF2 antibodies. The CM from pZipFGF2 MAE cells was also active when adsorbed into a gelatin sponge and applied on to the CAM, both in the absence and in the presence of anti-FGF2 antibodies. No effects on vessel development were exerted by parental MAE cells, FGF2-transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, or their conditioned media. In vitro, pZipFGF2 MAE cell CM caused parental MAE cells to invade fibrin gels and to undergo morphogenesis on Matrigel. This activity was not mimicked by recombinant FGF2 nor affected by anti-FGF2 antibodies, and depended on a M (r) approximately 45 000 heat-labile heparin-binding factor. Size exclusion chromatography of pZipFGF2 MAE cell CM demonstrated that the in vitro activity co-purified with an in vivo angiogenic capacity. Thus, FGF2 overexpression in mouse endothelial cells induces the production of an angiogenic activity distinct from FGF2, which may contribute to the genesis of angioproliferative lesions.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1999 · The Journal of Pathology