[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Interpersonal Violence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women can have negative mental health consequences for survivors; however, the effect of interventions designed to improve survivors' depressive symptoms is unclear.
To determine whether an advocacy intervention would improve the depressive symptoms of Chinese women survivors of IPV.
Assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial of 200 Chinese women 18 years or older with a history of IPV, conducted from February 2007 to June 2009 in a community center in Hong Kong, China.
The intervention group (n = 100) received a 12-week advocacy intervention comprising empowerment and telephone social support. The control group (n = 100) received usual community services including child care, health care and promotion, and recreational programs.
Primary outcome was change in depressive symptoms (Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory II) between baseline and 9 months. Secondary outcomes were changes in IPV (Chinese Revised Conflict Tactics Scales), health-related quality of life (12-Item Short Form Health Survey), and perceived social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List) between baseline and 9 months. Usefulness of the intervention and usual community services was evaluated at 9 months.
At 3 months, the mean change in depressive symptom score was 11.6 (95% CI, 9.5 to 13.7) in the control group and 14.9 (95% CI, 12.4 to 17.5) in the intervention group; respective changes at 9 months were 19.6 (95% CI, 16.6 to 22.7) and 23.2 (95% CI, 20.4 to 26.0). Intervention effects at 3 and 9 months were not significantly different (P = .86). The intervention significantly reduced depressive symptoms by 2.66 (95% CI, 0.26 to 5.06; P = .03) vs the control, less than the 5-unit minimal clinically important difference. Statistically significant improvement was found in partner psychological aggression (-1.87 [95% CI, -3.34 to -0.40]; mean change at 3 months, 1.5 [95% CI, -1.0 to 3.9] in the control group and 0.3 [95% CI, -0.7 to 1.4] in the intervention group; mean change at 9 months, -6.4 [95% CI, -7.8 to -5.0] and -8.9 [95% CI, -10.6 to -7.2]) and perceived social support (2.18 [95% CI, 0.48 to 3.89]; mean change at 3 months, 6.4 [95% CI, 4.9 to 7.8] and 9.2 [95% CI, 7.7 to 10.8]; mean change at 9 months, 12.4 [95% CI, 10.5 to 14.3] and 14.4 [95% CI, 12.7 to 16.1]) but not in physical assault, sexual coercion, or health-related quality of life. By end of study, more women in the intervention group found the advocacy intervention useful or extremely useful in improving intimate relationships vs those in the control group receiving usual community services (93.8% vs 81.7%; difference, 12.1% [95% CI, 2.1% to 22.0%]; P = .02) and in helping them to resolve conflicts with their intimate partners (97.5% vs 84.1%; difference, 13.4% [95% CI, 4.7% to 22.0%]; P = .001).
Among community-dwelling abused Chinese women, an advocacy intervention did not result in a clinically meaningful improvement in depressive symptoms.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01054898.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Editor's Note: Common in relationships where there is also physical violence, psychological abuse has always been very dif-fi cult to defi ne. Culture further complicates things, as what might seem psychologically abusive in one culture may not seem so in another. This article describes the results of a qualitative study in China comparing the stories of psychological abuse between women who are in physically abusive relationships and women who are not being abused. The results of this study further strengthen the notion that context is important to understand the effects of psychological abuse within abusive relationships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Educational approaches are thought to have facilitative or hindering effects on students' critical thinking development. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) and lecturing approaches on the development of students' critical thinking.
All 79 Year 1 undergraduate nursing students at a university in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 parallel courses delivered by either PBL (n = 40) or lecturing (n = 39) over 1 academic year. The primary outcome measure was students' critical thinking disposition as measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). Individual interviews were also conducted to elicit the students' perceptions of their learning experience. Data were collected at 4 timepoints spanning 3 years.
The overall CCTDI and subscale scores for the PBL group were not significantly different from those of the lecture group at the first timepoint (pretest). Compared with lecture students, PBL students showed significantly greater improvement in overall CCTDI (P = 0.0048), Truthseeking (P = 0.0008), Analyticity (P = 0.0368) and Critical Thinking Self-confidence (P = 0.0342) subscale scores from the first to the second timepoints; in overall CCTDI (P = 0.0083), Truthseeking (P = 0.0090) and Analyticity (P = 0.0354) subscale scores from the first to the third timepoints; and in Truthseeking (P = 0.0173) and Systematicity (P = 0.0440) subscale scores from the first to the fourth timepoints.
There were significant differences in the development of students' critical thinking dispositions between those who undertook the PBL and lecture courses, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Medical Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present preparedness planning for an influenza pandemic for two nursing subunits: nursing services in hospitals and schools of nursing in universities.
The preparedness plan is modeled on a modified Haddon matrix, a logical approach to identify measures appropriate for the pre-event, event, and postevent phases of an influenza pandemic. For the pre-event phase, the objective is to ensure preparedness for the potential pandemic outbreak through training, communication, surveillance, infection control, and vaccination. Once the pandemic outbreak is declared, the aim is to implement effective measures to ensure a rapid and appropriate response. For the postevent phase, the plan is focused on the restoration of core functions, vigilance for a second or possibly more waves of the pandemic, and psychosocial support to staff and students.
Measures required to prepare for, respond to, and manage the consequences of influenza pandemic are identified. This planning indicates the need to balance a logical approach with contextual perspectives and the importance for nursing leaders to develop plans for subunits of larger entities.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Nursing Scholarship
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a wealth of literature demonstrating that clinical nursing education is an important part of the baccalaureate programme in preparing students for entry into the nursing profession. While much attention has been given to the factors that can affect learning outcomes in the clinical environment, student and teacher perceptions of the relationship between assessment and learning has remained an under-researched area. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions about what students learned and how they learned during their clinical practicum, and to examine the role played by assessment in influencing student learning. Data were collected through a series of focus group interviews with groups of nursing students, graduates, and teachers. It was revealed that students' learning during the clinical practicum was, to a large extent, affected by their perceptions of the assessment tasks. As a result, they adopted a surface approach to learning and focused on preparing for the assessment tasks to the detriment of their learning. Assessment, in this study, exerted what has been described as a negative "backwash" effect on learning. Since assessment may also foster student learning in a positive way, suggestions are offered as to what can be done to bring about a positive "backwash" effect.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Nurse Education Today
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As medical technologies change, practicing nurses need to update their knowledge and skills to ensure quality health care for patients and to minimize possible health hazards in the workplace. This article describes a study that explored Hong Kong hospital nurses' perceptions of and participation in continuing nursing education. It found that Hong Kong nurses participate actively in continuing education out of a sense of professional responsibility and personal interest. However, consistent with findings from other studies, the major factors hindering nurses' participation are finances, family commitments, and time.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing