[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Although many studies have indicated that psychosocial factors contribute to hypertension, and that early childhood adversity is associated with long-term adverse mental and physical health sequelae, the association between early adversity and later hypertension is not well studied.
Data from 10 countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WHM) Surveys (N = 18,630) were analyzed to assess the relationship between childhood adversity and adult-onset hypertension, as ascertained by self-report. The potentially mediating effect of early-onset depression-anxiety disorders, as assessed by the WHM Survey version of the International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), on the relationship between early adversity and hypertension was also examined.
Two or more early childhood adversities, as well as early-onset depression-anxiety, were significantly associated with hypertension. A range of specific childhood adversities, as well as early-onset social phobia and panic/agoraphobia, were significantly associated with hypertension. In multivariate analyses, the presence of 3 or more childhood adversities was associated with hypertension, even when early-onset depression-anxiety or current depression-anxiety was included in the model.
Although caution is required in the interpretation of self-report data on adult-onset hypertension, the results of this study further strengthen the evidence base regarding the role of psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
Full-text Article · Feb 2010 · Annals of Clinical Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied.
Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Logistic regression analysis was used to study associations of retrospectively reported childhood risk factors with adult persistence among the 629 adult respondents with childhood ADHD. Risk factors included age; sex; childhood ADHD symptom profiles, severity, and treatment; comorbid child/adolescent DSM-IV disorders; childhood family adversities; and child/adolescent exposure to traumatic events.
An average of 50% of children with ADHD (range: 32.8%-84.1% across countries) continued to meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD as adults. Persistence was strongly related to childhood ADHD symptom profile (highest persistence associated with the attentional plus impulsive-hyperactive type, odds ratio [OR]=12.4, compared with the lowest associated with the impulsive-hyperactive type), symptom severity (OR=2.0), comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD; OR=2.2), high comorbidity (>or=3 child/adolescent disorders in addition to ADHD; OR=1.7), paternal (but not maternal) anxiety mood disorder (OR=2.4), and parental antisocial personality disorder (OR=2.2). A multivariate risk profile of these variables significantly predicts persistence of ADHD into adulthood (area under the receiving operator characteristic curve=.76).
A substantial proportion of children with ADHD continue to meet full criteria for ADHD as adults. A multivariate risk index comprising variables that can be assessed in adolescence predicts persistence with good accuracy.
Full-text Article · Dec 2008 · Biological psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Although there is a growing body of research concerning the prevalence and correlates of chronic pain conditions and their association with mental disorders, cross-national research on age and gender differences is limited. The present study reports the prevalence by age and gender of common chronic pain conditions (headache, back or neck pain, arthritis or joint pain, and other chronic pain) in 10 developed and 7 developing countries and their association with the spectrum of both depressive and anxiety disorders. It draws on data from 18 general adult population surveys using a common survey questionnaire (N = 42,249). Results show that age-standardized prevalence of chronic pain conditions in the previous 12 months was 37.3% in developed countries and 41.1% in developing countries, with back pain and headache being somewhat more common in developing than developed countries. After controlling for comorbid chronic physical diseases, several findings were consistent across developing and developed countries. There was a higher prevalence of chronic pain conditions among females and older persons; and chronic pain was similarly associated with depression-anxiety spectrum disorders in developed and developing countries. However, the large majority of persons reporting chronic pain did not meet criteria for depression or anxiety disorder. We conclude that common pain conditions affect a large percentage of persons in both developed and developing countries.
Chronic pain conditions are common in both developed and developing countries. Overall, the prevalence of pain is greater among females and among older persons. Although most persons reporting pain do not meet criteria for a depressive or anxiety disorder, depression/anxiety spectrum disorders are associated with pain in both developed and developing countries.
Article · Aug 2008 · The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society