[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scoring the severity of a diabetic foot wound infection may help assess the severity, determine the type and urgency of antibiotic and surgical treatment needed, and predict clinical outcomes. We developed a 10-item diabetic foot infection wound score (results could range from 3 to 49 [least to most severe]) incorporating semi-quantitative grading of both wound measurements and various infection parameters. Using data from a prospective diabetic foot infection antibiotic trial (SIDESTEP), we evaluated the score's accuracy in predicting outcome, analyzed its components and tested it for consistency, construct, and validity. Wound scores for 371 patients significantly correlated with the clinical response; it was favorable at the follow-up assessment in 94.8% with a baseline score </=12 compared with 77.0% with a score >19. Scores demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70 to <0.95). Patients with more severe wounds had higher scores, supporting construct validity. Excluding scores for wound discharge (purulent and nonpurulent), leaving an eight-item score, provided better measurement statistics. This easily performed wound score appears to be a reliable, valid, and useful tool for predicting clinical outcomes. Further validation studies in different patient populations should refine the items included.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Wound Repair and Regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) is examining aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections. This report summarizes the 2005 annual data.
During 2005, 76 medical centers in 31 countries in five regions collected intra-abdominal GNB for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
A total of 5,476 unique aerobic and facultatively anaerobic GNB were isolated. Enterobacteriaceae accounted for 86% (4,711) of the total isolates. Among the 12 antimicrobial agents tested, the carbapenems and amikacin were the most reliably active against the Enterobacteriaceae, whereas ampicillin/sulbactam most often was the least active. Escherichia coli was the species most commonly isolated, at 48% (2,654). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were detected phenotypically in 12% (325/2,329) of E. coli and 18% (151/856) of Klebsiella spp. In general, ESBL producers demonstrated lower susceptibility to the majority of the antibiotics than the non-producers; however, ESBL producers usually were susceptible to the carbapenems tested.
In 2005, antibiotic resistance continued to be a problem among GNB isolated from intra-abdominal infections, with the highest resistance rates observed in the Asia/Pacific region. Imipenem-cilastatin, ertapenem, and amikacin were the agents most consistently active in vitro against the Enterobacteriaceae isolated.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Surgical Infections