[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system of yangambin, a lignan isolated from Ocotea duckei Vattimo (Lauraceae), were studied in rats using combined functional and biochemical approaches. In non-anaesthetized rats, yangambin (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension (-3.5 ± 0.2; -7.1 ± 0.8; -8.9 ± 1.3; -14 ± 2.3, -25.5% ± 2.6%, respectively) accompanied by tachycardia (5.9 ± 0.5; 5.9 ± 1.6; 8.8 ± 1.4; 11.6, 18.8% ± 3.4%, respectively). In isolated rat atria, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) had very slight negative inotropic (Emax = 35.6% ± 6.4%) and chronotropic effects (Emax = 10.2% ± 2.9%). In endothelium-intact rat mesenteric artery, yangambin (0.1 µM-1 mM) induced concentration-dependent relaxation (pD2 = 4.5 ± 0.06) of contractions induced by phenylephrine and this effect was not affected by removal of the endothelium. Interestingly, like nifedipine, the relaxant effect induced by yangambin was more potent on the contractile response induced by KCl 80 mM (pD2 = 4.8 ± 0.05) when compared to that induced by phenylephrine. Furthermore, yangambin inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This lignan also induced relaxation (pD2 = 4.0 ± 0.04) of isolated arteries pre-contracted with S(-)-Bay K 8644. In fura-2/AM-loaded myocytes of rat mesenteric arteries, yangambin inhibited the Ca2+ signal evoked by KCl 60 mM. In conclusion, these results suggest that the hypotensive effect of yangambin is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation that involves, at least, the inhibition the Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotundifolone is the major constituent of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson. In preliminary studies, rotundifolone induced significant hypotensive, bradycardic and vasorelaxant effects in rats. Thus, to gain more insight into the pharmacology of rotundifolone, the aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanism of action involved in relaxation produced by rotundifolone. The relaxant effect was investigated in rat superior mesenteric arteries by using isometric tension measurements and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Rotundifolone relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with KCl (20 mM), charybdotoxin (10(-7) M) or tetraethylammonium (TEA 10(-3) or 3 × 10(-3) M) significantly attenuated the relaxation effect induced by rotundifolone. Additionally, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made in mesenteric smooth muscle cells and showed that rotundifolone significantly increased K(+) currents, and this effect was abolished by TEA (10(-3) M), suggesting the participation of BK(Ca) channels. Furthermore, rotundifolone inhibited the vasoconstriction induced by CaCl(2) in depolarizing nominally Ca(2+) -free medium and antagonized the contractions elicited by an L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist, S(-)-Bay K 8644 (2 × 10(-7) M), indicating that the vasodilatation involved inhibition of Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca(v) type-L). Additionally, rotundifolone inhibited L-type Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca) L), affecting the voltage-dependent activation of I(Ca) L and steady-state inactivation. Our findings suggest that rotundifolone induces vasodilatation through two distinct but complementary mechanisms that clearly depend on the concentration range used. Rotundifolone elicits an increase in the current density of BK(Ca) channels and causes a shift in the steady-state inactivation relationship for Ca(v) type-L towards more hyperpolarized membrane potentials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcuma longa L. (CL) is a yellow rhizome that is used in African traditional medicine to treat palpitation, hypertension or other related blood circulation disorders.
To justify the use of CL in ethnomedicine, we investigated the vasorelaxant effect of methanolic extract of CL (CLME) and its underlying mechanisms in isolated rat mesenteric artery.
The effect of CLME on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) (pulse interval) were determined in vivo in non-anaesthetized rats. Superior mesenteric rings were isolated, suspended in organ baths containing Tyrode solution at 37 degrees C and gassed with 95% O(2)+5% CO(2), under a resting tension of 0.75 g. The vasorelaxant effects of CLME were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments.
In normotensive rats, CLME (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.v.) induced dose-dependent hypotension (2.0+/-0.5%; 27.1+/-5.0% and 26.7+/-4.6%, respectively), and pronounced bradycardia (5.8+/-1.2%, 19.3+/-3.2% and 22.9+/-4.6%, respectively). CLME (1-1000 microg/mL) induced concentration-dependent relaxation of tonic contractions evoked by phenylephrine (Phe) (10 microM) and KCl (80 mM) in rings with intact-endothelium (E(max)=82.3+/-3.2% and 97.7+/-0.7%) or denuded-endothelium (E(max)=91.4+/-1.0% and 97.8+/-1.1%). Also, in a depolarized, Ca(2+) free medium, CLME inhibited CaCl(2) (1 microM-30 mM)-induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the response curves, indicating that CLME inhibited the contractile mechanisms involving extracellular Ca(2+) influx. In addition, in Ca(2+) free media containing EGTA (1 mM), CLME inhibited the transient contraction of denuded rings constricted with Phe, but not those evoked by caffeine (20 mM). In contrast, neither glibenclamide, BaCl(2), tetraethylammonium nor 4-aminopyridine affected CLME-induced relaxation.
These results demonstrate the hypotensive and bradycardic effects of CLME, as well as its potent vasodilation of rat mesenteric arteries. These effects, may in part, be due to the inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and/or inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from Phe-sensitive stores.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effects of discretamine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Duguetia magnolioidea Maas, on the cardiovascular system, using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements, as well as changes in isometric tension in rat superior mesenteric arterial rings, elicited by discretamine were recorded. In normotensive non-anaesthetized rats (n = 6), discretamine (0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.v., randomly) injections produced hypotension (-5.2 +/- 1.7; -5.1 +/- 2.1; -7.7 +/- 2; -8.9 +/- 1.7; -9.6 +/- 2.2; -16.8 +/- 2.8 and -13.4 +/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively) accompanied by tachycardia (24.2 +/- 6.1; 36.8 +/- 11.3; 44.2 +/- 7.7; 45.9 +/- 6.4; 48.2 +/- 9.1; 72.1 +/- 14.5 and 64 +/- 17 bpm, respectively). Hypotensive and tachycardic responses were significantly attenuated after L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.v.) administration. In isolated rat mesenteric artery rings, with endothelium intact, discretamine (10(-12) - 10(-5) M) induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the contractions induced by phenylephrine (10 microM) [pD2 = 6.8 +/- 0.1]. The effect of the discretamine on phenylephrine induced contractions was significantly attenuated after removal of the vascular endothelium [pD2 = 5.8 +/- 0.04]. Similar results were obtained after pre-treatment with L-NAME 100 microM [pD2 = 5.8 +/- 0.04], L-NAME 300 microM [pD2 = 5.9 +/- 0.06], Hydroxocobalamin 30 microM [pD2 = 5.8 +/- 0.06] or ODQ 10 microM [pD2 = 5.8 +/- 0.04]. In addition, in rabbit aorta endothelial cell line, discretamine significantly increased NO3- levels. These results suggest that the hypotensive effect induced by discretamine is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation, at least, in part, due to the release of NO from vascular endothelium and consequent activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC) in the vascular smooth muscle cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxation induced by mesoionic 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1;3-thiazolium-5-thyolate (CMMTT), a newly synthesized mesoionic compound, in rat superior mesenteric arteries. In phenylephrine (10 microM)-pre-contracted mesenteric rings, CMMTT (10(-14) - 10(-6) M) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation [pD(2) = 10.26 +/- 0.05, E(max) = 80.8 +/- 5.8%], and this effect was almost abolished after either removal of the vascular endothelium [E(max) = 17.7 +/- 4.2%, P<0.001], removal of the vascular endothelium plus100 microM N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME) [E(max) = 21.0 +/- 2.0 %, P<0.001], or after pre-treatment of the rings with 100 microM L-NAME [E(max) = 13.3 +/- 2.4%, P<0.001] or 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) [E(max) = 13.6 +/- 4.8%, P<0.001]. However, endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by CMMTT was not significantly modified after 1 microM indomethacin plus 1 nM atropine [pD(2) = 11.12 +/- 0.08, E(max) = 73.8 +/- 5.15%] or 100 nM charybdotoxin (ChTX) plus 100 nM apamin [pD(2) = 10.89 +/- 0.08, E(max) = 58.91 +/- 9.8%]. In mesenteric rings, CMMTT (10(-6) M) was able to increase nitric oxide (NO)(x) levels, and this effect was abolished after removal of the vascular endothelium. In conclusion, the present study, using combined functional and biochemical approaches, demonstrated that CMMTT induced a significant vasorelaxant effect, almost completely mediated by the endothelium, likely via NO release and activation of the NO-cGMP pathway.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect induced by diosgenin in superior mesenteric rings. In rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (10 microM), diosgenin caused concentration-dependent relaxations [EC(50) = (3.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(- 4)M, E(max) = 94.2 +/- 2.6 %]. Vascular relaxation induced by diosgenin was significantly inhibited after removal of the endothelium (E(max) = 46 +/- 8.8%, p < 0.001) or after pre-treatment of the rings with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (l-NAME) 100 or 300 microM (E(max) = 35.3 +/- 4%; 28.1 +/- 3.3%, respectively, p < 0.001), atropine 1 microM (E(max) = 24.6 +/- 3.4%, p < 0.001), hydroxocobalamin 30 microM (E(max) = 54.0 +/- 9.6%, p < 0.001), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) 10 microM (E(max) = 46.0 +/- 8.0%, p < 0.001) or indomethacin 1 microM (E(max) = 22.6 +/- 11.8%, p < 0.001). Vasorelaxation evoked by diosgenin was significantly inhibited after pre-treatment of preparations with both selective and non-selective inhibitors of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels, iberiotoxin 100 nM or tetraethylammonium (TEA) 1mM, respectively (E(max) = 62.5 +/- 9.1%; 65.7 +/- 1.1%, p < 0.001). Conversely, in endothelium-denuded vessels, none of BK(Ca) channel blockers modified the relaxant effect induced by diosgenin. In mesenteric endothelial cells loaded with FURA-2 diosgenin was able to increase intracellular calcium concentrations, which were significantly decreased by atropine 1 microM. In addition, in isolated mesenteric rings, diosgenin induced marked increase in nitric oxide (NO) levels, which was completely abolished after functional endothelium removal. The results obtained here demonstrated that diosgenin-induced relaxation appears to involve endothelial muscarinic receptor activation with increase in intracellular calcium concentrations and consequent release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), mainly NO and cyclooxygenase derivatives, which activate BK(Ca) channels. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to clearly elucidate residual endothelium-independent relaxation induced by diosgenin.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · European Journal of Pharmacology