[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the cytokine-mediated immune response in children submitted to primary vaccination with the YF-17D-213/77 or YF-17DD yellow fever (YF) substrains.
A non-probabilistic sample of eighty healthy primary vaccinated (PV) children was selected on the basis of their previously known humoral immune response to the YF vaccines. The selected children were categorized according to their YF-neutralizing antibody titers (PRNT) and referred to as seroconverters (PV-PRNT(+)) or nonseroconverters (PV-PRNT(-)). Following revaccination with the YF-17DD, the PV-PRNT(-) children (YF-17D-213/77 and YF-17DD groups) seroconverted and were referred as RV-PRNT(+). The cytokine-mediated immune response was investigated after short-term in vitro cultures of whole blood samples. The results are expressed as frequency of high cytokine producers, taking the global median of the cytokine index (YF-Ag/control) as the cut-off.
The YF-17D-213/77 and the YF-17DD substrains triggered a balanced overall inflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern in PV-PRNT(+), with a slight predominance of IL-12 in YF-17DD vaccinees and a modest prevalence of IL-10 in YF-17D-213/77. Prominent frequency of neutrophil-derived TNF-α and neutrophils and monocyte-producing IL-12 were the major features of PV-PRNT(+) in the YF-17DD, whereas relevant inflammatory response, mediated by IL-12(+)CD8(+) T cells, was the hallmark of the YF-17D-213/77 vaccinees. Both substrains were able to elicit particular but relevant inflammatory events, regardless of the anti-YF PRNT antibody levels. PV-PRNT(-) children belonging to the YF-17DD arm presented gaps in the inflammatory cytokine signature, especially in terms of the innate immunity, whereas in the YF-17D-213/77 arm the most relevant gap was the deficiency of IL-12-producing CD8(+)T cells. Revaccination with YF-17DD prompted a balanced cytokine profile in YF-17DD nonresponders and a robust inflammatory profile in YF-17D-213/77 nonresponders.
Our findings demonstrated that, just like the YF-17DD reference vaccine, the YF-17D-213/77 seed lot induced a mixed pattern of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines, supporting its universal use for immunization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccines have been available for decades and are considered highly effective and one of the safest vaccines worldwide.
The impact of YF-17DD-antigens recall on cytokine profiles of YF-17DD-vaccinated children were characterized using short-term cultures of whole blood samples and single-cell flow cytometry. This study enrolled seroconverters and nonseroconverters after primovaccination (PV-PRNT⁺ and PV-PRNT⁻), seroconverters after revaccination (RV-PRNT⁺), and unvaccinated volunteers (UV-PRNT⁻).
The analysis demonstrated in the PV-PRNT⁺ group a balanced involvement of pro-inflammatory/regulatory adaptive immunity with a prominent participation of innate immunity pro-inflammatory events (IL-12⁺ and TNF-α⁺ NEU and MON). Using the PV-PRNT⁺ cytokine signature as a reference profile, PV-PRNT⁻ presented a striking lack of innate immunity proinflammatory response along with an increased adaptive regulatory profile (IL-4⁺CD4⁺ T cells and IL-10⁺ and IL-5⁺CD8⁺ T cells). Conversely, the RV-PRNT⁺ shifted the overall cytokine signatures toward an innate immunity pro-inflammatory profile and restored the adaptive regulatory response.
The data demonstrated that the overall cytokine signature was associated with the levels of PRNT antibodies with a balanced innate/adaptive immunity with proinflammatory/regulatory profile as the hallmark of PV-PRNT(MEDIUM⁺), whereas a polarized regulatory response was observed in PV-PRNT⁻ and a prominent proinflammatory signature was the characteristic of PV-PRNT(HIGH⁺).
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of immune response following yellow fever (YF-17DD) vaccination are still poorly understood. In this study, we have performed a longitudinal investigation (days 0, 7, 15 and 30) to characterize the cytokine profile of innate and adaptive immunity following YF-17DD first-time vaccination. Data from non-stimulated cultures demonstrated a prominent participation of the innate immunity with increased frequency of TNF-α(+) neutrophils and IFN-γ(+) NK-cells at day 7 besides TNF-α(+) monocytes at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) monocytes was observed at day 15 and day 30, and decreased percentage of IL-4(+) NK-cells were detected at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Time-dependent and oscillating cytokine pattern was observed in CD4(+) T-cells, with low percentage of IL-12(+), IL-4(+) and IL-10(+) cells at day 7 and increased frequency of TNF-α(+) cells at day 15 besides IFN-γ(+) and IL-5(+) cells at day 15 and day 30. Later changes with increased percentage of IL-12(+) and IL-5(+)CD8(+) T-cells were observed at day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) B-cells was observed at day 15, when seroconversion was detected in all vaccinees. The overall cytokine analysis of non-stimulated leukocytes showed a transient shift towards a pro-inflammatory profile at day 7, mainly due to changes in the innate immunity, which draws back toward a mixed/regulatory pattern at day 15 and day 30. The changes induced by the in vitro YF-17DD vaccine-stimulation were mainly observed at day 0 and day 7 (before seroconversion) with minor changes at day 15 and day 30 (after seroconversion). These data support the hypothesis that a complex network with mixed pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile is associated with the establishment of the protective immunity following YF-17DD primo-vaccination, free of adverse events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detailed multiparametric phenotypic investigation aiming to characterize the kinetics of the innate immune response in the peripheral blood following 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) first-time vaccination was performed. Results showed increased frequency of monocytes and NK cell subpopulations besides unexpected up-regulation of granulocytes activation status (CD28+/CD23+ and CD28+/HLA-DR+, respectively). Up-regulation of Fcgamma-R and IL-10-R expression emerge as putative events underlying the mixed pattern of phenotypic features triggered by the 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) vaccination. Mixed pattern of chemokine receptors expression further support our hypothesis that a parallel establishment of activation/modulation microenvironment plays a pivotal role in the protective immunity triggered by the 17DD-YF vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over past decades the 17DD yellow fever vaccine has proved to be effective in controlling yellow fever and promises to be a vaccine vector for other diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it elicits such broad-based immunity are still unclear. In this study we describe a detailed phenotypic investigation of major and minor peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations aimed at characterizing the kinetics of the adaptive immune response following primary 17DD vaccination. Our major finding is a decreased frequency of circulating CD19+ cells at day 7 followed by emerging activation/modulation phenotypic features (CD19+interleukin(IL)10R+/CD19+CD32+) at day 15. Increased frequency of CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related(HLA-DR+) at day 7 and CD8+HLA-DR+ at day 30 suggest distinct kinetics of T cell activation, with CD4+ T cells being activated early and CD8+ T cells representing a later event following 17DD vaccination. Up-regulation of modulatory features on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at day 15 seems to be the key event leading to lower frequency of CD38+ T cells at day 30. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the co-existence of phenotypic features associated with activation events and modulatory pathways. Positive correlations between CD4+HLA-DR+ cells and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and the association between the type 0 chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation status of CD4+ and CD8+ cells further support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that this controlled microenviroment seems to be the key to prevent the development of serious adverse events, and even deaths, associated with the 17DD vaccine reported in the literature.