[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p28, a 28kD protein from toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) oocytes, was identified by using p13(suc1)-agarose affinity chromatography. Sequence homology analysis of the full-length cDNA of p28 (Gene Bank accession number: AF 314091) indicated that it encodes a protein containing 224 amino-acids with about 55% identities and more than 70% positives to human, rat or mouse UCH-L1, and contains homological functional domains of UCH family. Anti-p28 monoclonal antibody, on injecting into the oocytes, could inhibit the progesterone-induced resumption of meiotic division in a dose-dependent manner. The recombinant protein p28 showed similar SDS/PAGE behaviors to the native one, and promoted ubiquitin ethyl ester hydrolysis, a classical catalytic reaction for ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolases (UCHs). The results in this paper reveal that a novel protein, p28, exists in the toad oocytes, is a UCH L1 homolog, was engaged in the process of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation possibly through an involvement in protein turnover and degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p34cdc2 and Cyclin B1 are key components of cell cycle controlling machine and are believed to play a fundamental role in gametogenesis. It is also well known that, in scrotal mammals, spermatogenesis depends greatly on the maintenance of comparatively low temperature in the scrotum. To investigate whether the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis is actually a temperature dependent event, in situ hybridization, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to study the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in normal and cryptorchid testis. Results showed that the abdominal temperature had no significant influence on the transcription of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in the spermatogonia and pachytene/diplotene primary spermatocytes, but it blocked the translation of them. Due to the deficiency of p34cdc2 and Cyclin B1, the spermatogonia and pachytene/diplotene primary spermatocytes were unable to form MPF, hence, they couldn't undergo karyokinesis. The development of primary spermatocytes was arrested at the G2 to M phase transition. We also found that testosterone could regulate the Cyclin B1 expression in spermatogenic cells. Muscular injection of testosterone could recover spermatogenesis in the unilateral scrotal testis which was influenced by the contralateral cryptorchid testis, but it could not salvage the spermatogenesis block in the cryptorchid testis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Full grown oocytes derived from Bufo Bufo gargarizans rearing at high temperature environment (24 °C), never underwent GVBD after progesterone treatment. No p34cdc2 H1 kinase activity was detected in the oocytes after progesterone stimulation or OA microinjection; Western blotting analysis showed that the level of p34cdc2 and p33 in the oocytes are significantly lower than those in the oocytes derived from the hibernating toads (below 10 °C). 35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that when the oocytes were incubated at 6 °C, synthesis of about thirty different polypeptides was promoted or induced, including p34cdc2 and some other p13sucl-binding proteins. All these results indicated that a low temperature environment is essential for the oocytes of Bufo Bufo gargarizans to express and store some cell cycle drivers and its regulators, and to gain the maturation competence. These results will also provide a new clue for explaining the molecular mechanisms why gametogenesis of some organisms depends on a relative low temperature and how to maintain the geographical distribution of some animals.