[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with an estimated incidence of less than 1 per million population. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum calcium level and the deleterious effects of hypercalcemia are the clinical manifestations of the disease. Up to 60% of patients develop multiple disease recurrences and although long-term survival is possible with palliative surgery, permanent remission is rarely achieved. Molecular drivers of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma have remained largely unknown. Previous studies, mostly based on familial cases of the disease, suggested potential roles for the tumor suppressor MEN1 and proto-oncogene RET in benign parathyroid tumorigenesis while the tumor suppressor HRPT2 and proto-oncogene CCND1 may also act as drivers in parathyroid cancer. Here, we report the complete genomic analysis of a sporadic and recurring parathyroid carcinoma. Mutational landscapes of the primary and recurrent tumor specimens were analyzed using high throughput sequencing technologies. Such molecular profiling allowed for identification of somatic mutations never previously identified in this malignancy. These included single nucleotide point mutations in well characterized cancer genes such as mTOR, MLL2, CDKN2C and PIK3CA. Comparison of acquired mutations in patient-matched primary and recurrent tumors revealed loss of PIK3CA activating mutation during the evolution of the tumor from the primary to the recurrence. Structural variations leading to gene fusions and regions of copy loss and gain were identified at a single-base resolution. Loss of short arm of chromosome 1 along with somatic mis-sense and truncating mutations in CDKN2C and THRAP3, respectively, provide new evidence for the potential role of these genes as tumor suppressors in parathyroid cancer. The key somatic mutations indentified in this study can serve as novel diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic targets.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · The Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, previous attempts to identify targets for therapy have been underpowered because of small samples sizes. Here we report somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in 1,087 unique medulloblastomas. SCNAs are common in medulloblastoma, and are predominantly subgroup-enriched. The most common region of focal copy number gain is a tandem duplication of SNCAIP, a gene associated with Parkinson's disease, which is exquisitely restricted to Group 4α. Recurrent translocations of PVT1, including PVT1-MYC and PVT1-NDRG1, that arise through chromothripsis are restricted to Group 3. Numerous targetable SCNAs, including recurrent events targeting TGF-β signalling in Group 3, and NF-κB signalling in Group 4, suggest future avenues for rational, targeted therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe Trans-ABySS, a de novo short-read transcriptome assembly and analysis pipeline that addresses variation in local read densities by assembling read substrings with varying stringencies and then merging the resulting contigs before analysis. Analyzing 7.4 gigabases of 50-base-pair paired-end Illumina reads from an adult mouse liver poly(A) RNA library, we identified known, new and alternative structures in expressed transcripts, and achieved high sensitivity and specificity relative to reference-based assembly methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing data from non-normalized samples offer unique opportunities to study the metabolic states of organisms. One can deduce gene expression levels using sequence coverage as a surrogate, identify coding changes or discover novel isoforms or transcripts. Especially for discovery of novel events, de novo assembly of transcriptomes is desirable.
Transcriptome from tumor tissue of a patient with follicular lymphoma was sequenced with 36 base pair (bp) single- and paired-end reads on the Illumina Genome Analyzer II platform. We assembled approximately 194 million reads using ABySS into 66 921 contigs 100 bp or longer, with a maximum contig length of 10 951 bp, representing over 30 million base pairs of unique transcriptome sequence, or roughly 1% of the genome.
Source code and binaries of ABySS are freely available for download at http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/abyss. Assembler tool is implemented in C++. The parallel version uses Open MPI. ABySS-Explorer tool is implemented in Java using the Java universal network/graph framework.