[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The time course of atherosclerosis burden in distinct vascular territories remains poorly understood. We longitudinally evaluated the natural history of atherosclerotic progression in two different arterial territories using high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI), a powerful, safe, and non-invasive tool.
We prospectively studied a cohort of 30 patients (mean age 68.3, n = 9 females) with high Framingham general cardiovascular disease 10-year risk score (29.5%) and standard medical therapy with mild-to-moderate atherosclerosis intra-individually at the level of both carotid and femoral arteries. A total of 178 HR-MRI studies of carotid and femoral arteries performed at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-up were evaluated in consensus reading by two experienced readers for lumen area (LA), total vessel area (TVA), vessel wall area (VWA = TVA - LA), and normalized wall area index (NWI = VWA/TVA). At the carotid level, LA decreased (-3.19%/year, P = 0.018), VWA increased (+3.83%/year, P = 0.019), and TVA remained unchanged. At the femoral level, LA remained unchanged, VWA and TVA increased (+5.23%/year and +3.11%/year, both P < 0.01), and NWI increased for both carotid and femoral arteries (+2.28%/year, P = 0.01, and +1.8%/year, P = 0.033).
The atherosclerotic burden increased significantly in both carotid and femoral arteries. However, carotid plaque progression was associated with negative remodelling, whereas the increase in femoral plaque burden was compensated by positive remodelling. This finding could be related to anatomic and flow differences and/or to the distinct degree of obstruction in the two arterial territories.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess in vivo the long-term effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) on vessel wall by serial MRI.
Twenty patients with symptomatic stenosis of the femoropopliteal artery were randomly assigned to PTA (n=10) or PTA+EVBT (n=10, 14Gy by gamma-source). High-resolution MRI was performed prior, at 24-hours, 3-months, and 24-months after intervention. MRI data were analyzed by an independent, blinded observer.
The effects of both procedures on vessel wall at 24-hours and 3-months have been reported. Despite similar percent decrease in lumen area between 3- and 24-months in both groups (-8% for PTA and -11% for PTA+EVBT), at 24-months lumen area gain compared to baseline was +30% in PTA versus +82% in PTA+EVBT (p<0.05). Total vessel area, which was increased at 24-hours and 3-months, returned to pre-treatment value in both groups.
We demonstrated non-invasively that restenosis and inward remodeling after PTA are delayed by EVBT. At 24-months, patients treated with brachytherapy have larger lumen than those treated with PTA alone. The decrease in luminal and total vessel area between 3- and 24-months after EVBT indicates that the restenotic and remodeling process is not abolished but delayed with this therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of probucol and/or of endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of femoropopliteal arteries.
A total of 335 patients (206 men; mean age 72+/-9 years) with intermittent claudication were randomized according to a 2x2 factorial design to 1 of the 4 groups: probucol, placebo, EVBT, and EVBT+probucol. Probucol (1 g/d) or placebo were given in double-blinded fashion 1 month before and for 6 months after PTA. Gamma irradiation (192Iridium, 14 Gy, 5-mm reference depth) was randomly applied in an unblinded manner from a noncentered endoluminal catheter. All patients received aspirin (100 mg/d). Primary endpoint was restenosis (>50% diameter reduction) detected by duplex ultrasound 6 months after PTA. Secondary endpoints included clinical and hemodynamic assessment.
Restenosis in patients undergoing EVBT was 17% (23/133) versus 35% (50/142) in patients without EVBT (p<0.001); in patients treated with probucol versus placebo, the rates were 23% (31/135) and 30% (43/140, p<0.001). Three quarters (77%, 102/133) of patients were free of claudication after EVBT therapy versus 61% (87/142) without EVBT (p<0.05). Need for target vessel revascularization was 6% (8/133) with EVBT versus 14% (20/142) without EVBT (p<0.01). Late thrombotic occlusions occurred in 4% (6/133), exclusively in patients treated with EVBT after stent implantation.
Endovascular brachytherapy significantly reduces restenosis, improves symptoms, and reduces reinterventions after PTA of femoropopliteal arteries. Probucol reduces restenosis but has no additive effect when combined with brachytherapy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of Endovascular Therapy