J F Savouret

Université René Descartes - Paris 5, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (31)105.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in various processes such as cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A induction after xenobiotic exposure. It is also considered to play a major role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent evidences have suggested a cross-talk between AhR functions and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. We now report that 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene (U0126), a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MEK) MEK1/2, elicits a marked increase in CYP1A1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels associated with a significant increase of enzyme activity in primary rat hepatocytes and a human hepatoma cell line. This induction occurred independently of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and in the absence of ERK1 and ERK2 expression. The effect of U0126 was mediated by its ability to transactivate xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-driven genes, as demonstrated by transfection assays with an XRE-driven luciferase construct in the human B16A2 hepatoma cell line. CYP1A1 modulation was abolished by a cotreatment with resveratrol, an established AhR antagonist, arguing for AhR activation by U0126. Such an effect was demonstrated by direct in vitro ligand binding competition assays using rabbit liver cytosol, showing that this compound binds AhR with an EC(50) = 25 x 10(-6) M. Moreover, we demonstrated that U0126 is a substrate for several P450s including human CYP1A2, -1A1, and -1B1. We conclude that the widely used specific inhibitor of MEK/ERK, U0126, also acts as a potent AhR activator and an inducer of related genes. Such effects on the AhR may have an impact on biological functions attributed previously to MAPK inhibition.
    Preview · Article · May 2004 · Molecular Pharmacology
  • J F Savouret · A Berdeaux · R F Casper
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    ABSTRACT: This review reconsiders a major cause of cardiovascular diseases, tobacco smoking, as the activation of the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), also known as the dioxin receptor, by aryl hydrocarbons from the tar fraction of tobacco in various organs of the cardiovascular domain. This concept sheds new light on well-known albeit controversial epidemiological concepts such as the Mediterranean diet and the French paradox. We also review the discovery that resveratrol, a natural AhR antagonist, may be of interest in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
  • J F Savouret · M Quesne
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    ABSTRACT: The various properties of the stilbene phytoalexin Resveratrol provide interesting new avenues of research in the field of chemoprevention and chemotherapy. A particular emphasis is given on xenobiotic-related carcinogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy
  • D. Zhao · E. A. Pritts · V. A. Chao · J.-F. Savouret · R. N. Taylor

    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Fertility and Sterility
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    J F Savouret · M Antenos · M Quesne · J Xu · E Milgrom · R F Casper
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) as an endogenous modulator that inhibits transactivation by the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) through competitive binding against xenobiotic ligands. 7-KC binds AhR and displaces labeled dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxin (TCDD)). IC(50) is 5 x 10(-7) m in vivo and 7 x 10(-6) m in vitro. These figures are consistent with its concentration in human blood plasma and tissues. Association with 7-KC prevents AhR binding to DNA. 7-KC blocks the TCDD-mediated transactivation of stably expressed reporter gene constructs in T47-D cells as well as the expression of the endogenous CYP 1A1 gene in HepG2 cells and in primary porcine aortic endothelial cells. Injection of 7-KC to rats blocks the induction of CYP 1A1 messenger RNA and protein in endothelial cells from myocardial blood vessels. The differential sensitivity of mammalian species to toxic effects of AhR ligands, especially dioxin (TCDD), correlates with the expression of 7-hydroxycholesterol dehydrogenase, which synthesizes 7-KC from 7-hydroxycholesterol. The documented involvement of AhR ligands in cardiovascular diseases through lipid peroxidation and endothelium dysfunction can now be examined in the context of displacement of this protective modulator.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of resveratrol, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist, known to inhibit inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and its transcription were examined in a model of hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan in the rat. Pretreatment with resveratrol did not reverse swelling and edema, but reversed the hyperalgesia induced by local tissue injury provoked by carrageenan. This reversal, occurring at resveratrol concentrations as low as 2 mg/kg, lasted for at least 48 hours. The link with COX2 activity inhibition and COX2 gene transcription, as well as a potential AhR inhibitory effect, remain to be established.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · Life Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are environmental contaminants found in cigarette smoke and other sources of air pollution. The prototypical compound is TCDD (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), also known as dioxin. There is an increasing body of knowledge linking cigarette smoking to osteoporosis and periodontal disease, but the direct effects of smoke-associated aryl hydrocarbons on bone are not well understood. Through the use of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a plant antifungal compound that we have recently demonstrated to be a pure AhR antagonist, we have investigated the effects of TCDD on osteogenesis. It was postulated that TCDD would inhibit osteogenesis in bone-forming cultures and that this inhibition would be antagonized by resveratrol. We employed the chicken periosteal osteogenesis (CPO) model, which has been shown to form bone in vitro in a pattern morphologically and biochemically similar to that seen in vivo, as well as a rat stromal cell bone nodule formation model. In the CPO model, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was reduced by up to 50% (P<0.01 vs control) in the presence of 10(-9) M TCDD and these effects were reversed by 10(-6) M resveratrol (P<0.05 vs TCDD alone). TCDD-mediated inhibition of osteogenesis was restricted primarily to the osteoblastic differentiation phase (days 0-2) as later addition did not appear to have any effects. Message levels for important bone-associated proteins (in the CPO model) such as collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and AP were inhibited by TCDD, an effect that was antagonized by resveratrol. Similar findings were obtained using the rat stromal bone cell line. TCDD (at concentrations as low as 10(-10)M) caused an approximately 33% reduction in AP activity, which was abrogated by 3. 5x10(-7) M resveratrol. TCDD also induced a marked reduction in mineralization ( approximately 75%) which was completely antagonized by resveratrol. These data suggest that AhR ligands inhibit osteogenesis probably through inhibition of osteodifferentiation and that this effect can be antagonized by resveratrol. Since high levels of AhR ligands are found in cigarette smoke, and further since smoking is an important risk factor in both osteoporosis and periodontal disease, it may be postulated that AhR ligands are the component of cigarette smoke linking smoking to osteoporosis and periodontal disease. If so, resveratrol could prove to be a promising preventive or therapeutic agent for smoking-related bone loss.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · Journal of Endocrinology
  • R F Casper · M Quesne · I M Rogers · T Shirota · A Jolivet · E Milgrom · J F Savouret
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    ABSTRACT: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands such as dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene are environmental contaminants with many adverse health effects, including immunosuppression, carcinogenesis, and endothelial cell damage. We show here that a wine component, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), is a competitive antagonist of dioxin and other AhR ligands. Resveratrol promotes AhR translocation to the nucleus and binding to DNA at dioxin-responsive elements but subsequent transactivation does not take place. Resveratrol inhibits the transactivation of several dioxin-inducible genes including cytochrome P-450 1A1 and interleukin-1beta, both ex vivo and in vivo. Resveratrol has adequate potency and nontoxicity to warrant clinical testing as a prophylactic agent against aryl hydrocarbon-induced pathology.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Molecular Pharmacology
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    R N Taylor · J F Savouret · C Vaisse · J L Vigne · I Ryan · D Hornung · M Seppälä · E Milgrom
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most abundant protein products of human secretory endometrium is glycodelin, a glycoprotein previously referred to as PP14. Although the precise function of this protein is unknown, its unique glycosylation pattern is believed to affect immunomodulatory activity during human embryonic implantation and inhibition of sperm-egg binding after ovulation. Having confirmed the expression of glycodelin in secretory endometrial glands, we used purified endometrial epithelial cell cultures to demonstrate the hormonal regulation of glycodelin synthesis and secretion. The findings were corroborated by transiently transfecting glycodelin gene promoter-reporter constructs into human epithelioid HeLa and Ishikawa cells. Our results indicate that glycodelin protein production by endometrial epithelial cells is directly up-regulated 4- to 9-fold by progestins and antiprogestins in vitro. Transcriptional regulation of the glycodelin gene promoter expressed in HeLa cells is progesterone receptor-dependent. As observed in the primary endometrial cells, progestins and antiprogestins both act as agonists on the in vitro expression of this endometrial gene. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of this abundant endometrial protein and raise interesting questions about the physical nature of the interaction of agonist- and antagonist-bound progesterone receptors with the glycodelin gene promoter.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1998 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • E Milgrom · N de Roux · N Ghinea · I Beau · H Loosfelt · B Vannier · J F Savouret · M Misrahi
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotrophin and thyrotrophin receptors belong to a subgroup of G-protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are characterized by a large extracellular domain that is responsible for the binding of the hormone. Soluble receptors, such as some luteinizing hormone receptors, arise from premessenger RNA alternative splicing, or, in the case of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, by the cleavage and shedding of the ectodomain. Follicle-stimulating hormone and TSH receptors are restricted to the basolateral domain of their target cells. These receptors are also present in endothelial cells of target organ vessels and are involved in hormone transcytosis. Various genetic abnormalities of these receptors have been described.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Hormone Research
  • E Milgrom · J F Savouret · A Mantel · M Perrot-Applanat · K Delabre · P Lescop

    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Osteoporosis International
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotrophin and thyrotrophin receptors belong to a subgroup of G-protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are characterized by a large extracellular domain that is responsible for the binding of the hormone. Soluble receptors, such as some luteinizing hormone receptors, arise from premessenger RNA alternative splicing, or, in the case of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, by the cleavage and shedding of the ectodomain. Follicle-stimulating hormone and TSH receptors are restricted to the basolateral domain of their target cells. These receptors are also present in endothelial cells of target organ vessels and are involved in hormone transcytosis. Various genetic abnormalities of these receptors have been described.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Hormone Research in Paediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: PML is a protein involved in the t (15, 17) translocation of promyelocytic leukemia and is mainly localized in nuclear bodies. Here we show that PML exerts a very powerful enhancing activity (up to 20-fold) on the transactivating properties of the progesterone receptor (PR) and has a similar effect on several other steroid hormone receptors. There is probably a direct or indirect interaction between PR and PML since when the latter was expressed at high concentrations it shifted PR into the nuclear bodies. Use of deletion mutants showed that both activation functions (AF1 and AF2) of PR as well as the coiled coil and His-Cys rich domains of PML were required for transcriptional enhancement. The fusion protein PML-RAR, which is not localized in nuclear bodies, also enhanced the transactivating activity of PR but this effect was totally suppressed by the administration of retinoic acid. PML, which is ubiquitously expressed, may thus be involved in the transactivation properties of steroid hormone receptors. This mechanism may also play a role in the oncogenic properties of PML-RAR and in their suppression by the retinoic acid.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Annales d Endocrinologie
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    ABSTRACT: PML (promyelocytic leukemia) is a protein involved in the t (15;17) translocation of promyelocytic leukemia and is mainly localized in nuclear bodies. Here we show that PML exerts a very powerful enhancing activity (up to 20-fold) on the transactivating properties of the progesterone receptor (PR) and has a similar effect on several other steroid hormone receptors. There is probably a direct or indirect interaction between PR and PML, because when the latter was expressed at high concentrations it shifted PR into the nuclear bodies. The use of deletion mutants showed that both activation functions (AF1 and AF2) of PR as well as the coiled coil and His-Cys-rich domains of PML were required for transcriptional enhancement. The fusion protein PML-RAR which is not localized in nuclear bodies, also enhanced the transactivating activity of PR, but this effect was totally suppressed by the administration of retinoic acid. PML, which is ubiquitously expressed, may thus be involved in the transactivation properties of steroid hormone receptors. This mechanism may also play a role in the oncogenic properties of PML-RAR and in their suppression by retinoic acid.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Molecular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Transcriptional regulation of the progesterone receptor gene involves induction by estrogens and down-regulation by progestins, retinoic acid, and AP-1 proteins. We have previously identified an intragenic (+698/+723) estrogen-responsive element present in the progesterone receptor gene, which binds the estradiol receptor and mediates estrogen and 4-OH tamoxifen induction. Progesterone receptor gene expression was equally stimulated by estradiol and 4-OH tamoxifen in the presence of a NH2 terminally deleted estrogen receptor mutant lacking activation function 1, suggesting that activation function 2 was the predominant activation domain. This was confirmed by the lack of activity of an estrogen receptor mutant deleted of activation function 2. Repression by progestins, retinoic acid, and AP-1 was mediated by the same estrogen responsive element although retinoic and progesterone receptors as well as AP-1 proteins did not bind to this element. Repression by these proteins appears to involve different transactivating regions of the estrogen receptor. Repression by retinoic receptors involved only activation function 2 whereas repression by progesterone receptor and AP-1 necessitated both functional domains. Since these proteins act without directly contacting the DNA, it seems likely that repression may be achieved by protein-protein interactions among different domains of the estrogen receptor and/or the transcriptional machinery.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • J F Savouret · A Chauchereau · M Misrahi · P Lescop · A Mantel · A Bailly · E Milgrom
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    ABSTRACT: The progesterone receptor displays the typical three-domains structure of the steroid-thyroid receptor family. The central domain contains two 'zinc finger' structures responsible for the specific recognition of the cognate DNA sequences. The carboxy-terminal domain contains the hormone and anti-hormone binding site. Progesterone and synthetic progestins (R5020, Org 2058) activate the receptor, provoke its phosphorylation and DNA-binding ability and induce its regulatory activities. The antagonist RU38486 elicits the same sequence of events but leads to an abortive conclusion without specific gene transactivation. The progesterone receptor is down-regulated by its own ligand at the transcriptional level through inhibition of oestrogen receptor-mediated induction through protein-protein interactions. This mechanism is also inhibited by RU38486.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1994 · Human Reproduction

  • No preview · Article · Jul 1993 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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    A Chauchereau · J F Savouret · E Milgrom
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    ABSTRACT: The rabbit progesterone receptor undergoes dual regulation at the level of transcription: positive by estrogens and negative by progestins. The two aspects of this regulation are mediated by a single intragenic estrogen-responsive element. Estrogen receptor binding to this element has been demonstrated but progestin down-regulation does not proceed through DNA binding of the progesterone receptor. This result suggests some kind of protein-protein interaction--direct or indirect--between estrogen and progesterone receptors. At the post-transcriptional level, the progesterone receptor undergoes a hormone-dependent hyperphosphorylation of serine residues localized in the N-terminal region. Studies of progesterone receptor mutants have determined the influence of the different receptor domains in the phosphorylation mechanism. A casein kinase copurifies with the receptor. The role of this phosphorylation remains to be determined.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1992 · Biology of Reproduction
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    J F Savouret · A Bailly · M Misrahi · C Rauch · G Redeuilh · A Chauchereau · E Milgrom
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription of the progesterone receptor gene is induced by estrogens and decreased by progestins. Studies were performed to define the regions of the gene and the molecular mechanisms involved. No hormonal regulation could be observed using 5' flanking regions of the gene up to -2762 in front of a heterologous gene. Estrogen and progestin regulation could be observed only when using fragments of the gene extending down to +788. Progressive deletions from the 5' and 3' ends, site-directed mutagenesis and DNase protection experiments with purified estrogen receptor suggested that the biologically active estrogen responsive element (ERE) is present at +698/+723, overlapping the initiation of translation. An oligonucleotide was synthesized bearing this ERE and shown to impart estrogen inducibility to a heterologous gene. Its regulation by anti-estrogens corresponded to that of the in situ progesterone receptor gene since tamoxifen was a partial agonist whereas ICI 164384 was a full antagonist. This ERE also mediated down-regulation by progestins in the presence of the progesterone receptor, even though it has no progesterone receptor binding ability. DNase footprinting showed that this effect was not due to a decrease of estrogen receptor affinity for the ERE in the presence of progesterone receptor. Finally, use of deletion mutants of the progesterone receptor showed that the steroid binding and the DNA binding domains were necessary for down-regulation whereas deletions of various parts of the N-terminal domain were without effect.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1991 · The EMBO Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The T47-D breast cancer cell line constitutively expresses high levels of progesterone receptor (PR). This does not appear to be related to an anomaly in the estrogen receptor (ER) as shown by cloning of the ER cDNA from T47-D cells and its insertion into the expression vector pKSV-10. When transfected into heterologous Cos-7 and L cells this receptor exerts a normal biological activity, stimulating the transcription of a reporter gene only in the presence of estrogen. Moreover, normal estrogen regulation of the transcription of the reporter gene was also observed in situ in T47-D cells. Southern blot experiments showed the presence of four copies of the progesterone receptor gene in T47-D cells. This was related to the existence of four copies of chromosome 11 in these cells. The most likely explanation of the anomalous regulation of progesterone receptor expression in T47-D cells is thus the presence of at least one copy of the PR gene bearing an anomaly in its regulatory region(s).
    No preview · Article · Mar 1991 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
105.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2000
    • University of Toronto
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1980-1998
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
    • Hôpital Bicêtre (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992-1994
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France