[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been associated with transaminase and HCV viral load flares. Previous studies have included highly variable antiretroviral regimens. We compared effects of 2 protease inhibitor-based regimens on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and HCV loads in HCV-HIV-coinfected patients initiating HAART.
Seventy HIV-infected patients with positive baseline results of HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from a treatment trial comparing lopinavir-ritonavir with nelfinavir were evaluated during a 48-week period. HCV and HIV titers were analyzed at baseline, at weeks 24 and 48 of treatment, and during flares in the ALT level of >5 times the upper limit of normal.
A total of 57 of 70 patients tested positive for HCV RNA at baseline. HCV titers for patients in lopinavir-ritonavir and nelfinavir groups, respectively, were as follows: baseline, 6.07 and 6.22 log IU/mL; week 24 of treatment, 6.68 and 6.48 log IU/mL; and week 48 of treatment, 6.32 and 6.44 log IU/mL. Of patients with a CD4+ cell count of <100 cells/mm3 at baseline, 5 of 11 in the nelfinavir group and 0 of 10 in the lopinavir-ritonavir group had an increase in the HCV load of >0.5 log IU/mL from baseline to week 48. The mean ALT level increased by 45 U/L at 24 weeks and 18 U/L at 48 weeks in the nelfinavir group but decreased by 18 U/L at 24 weeks and 7 U/L at 48 weeks in the lopinavir-ritonavir group. Eight patients in the nelfinavir group and 2 patients in the lopinavir-ritonavir group had grade 3 or 4 flares in the ALT level.
HAART initiation is associated with increased HCV loads and ALT levels. A low baseline CD4+ cell count is associated with persistent increases in the HCV RNA load in nelfinavir-treated patients. These results warrant careful interpretation of abnormalities in the ALT load after HAART initiation in HCV-HIV-coinfected patients to prevent premature discontinuation of treatment.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PL3.2 B A C K G R O U N D Lopinavir (LPV) is an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) that is co-formulated with ritonavir, which functions as an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A. Even at low ritonavir doses, there is a substantial increase in LPV exposure. The phase 2 development program for lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) demonstrated antiviral activity and safety in a range of antiretroviral-naive 1 , single PI-experienced 2 , and multiple PI-experienced 3 patients. The current analysis presents the 48-week results of a phase 3 study initiated in 1999 and designed to confirm safety/efficacy of LPV/r in single PI-experienced, NNRTI-naive patients.