[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field variation is one of the important factors that can have a significant impact on genetic data analysis. Ineffective control of field variation may result in an inflated residual variance and/or biased estimation of genetic variations and/or effects. In this study, we addressed this problem by merging genetic models with the information from a rectangular cotton field layout (referred to row and column directions). Data from a genetic mapping study in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was used to validate the proposed methodology. This study included model evaluation based on simulations and actual data analysis on four agronomic traits (seed yield, lint yield, lint percentage, and boll weight) in cotton. Results based on simulations suggested that when there were no row and column effects, the conventional and the extended genetic models yielded similar results. However, when either field row and/or column effects were significant, the conventional genetic model yielded biased estimates for residual variance component with larger mean square error whereas the extended genetic models yielded more unbiased estimates. Actual data analysis revealed that lint yield and seed yield were significantly influenced by the systematic variation present in the field. With the extended model, the residual variance associated with these traits was reduced approximately 65 % compared to the conventional block model. Accordingly, the averaged heritability estimate increased by about 18 % for these traits. Thus, the results suggested that genetic data analysis can be improved when field variation is considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) accounts for about 95% of world cotton production. Improving Upland cotton cultivars has been the focus of world-wide cotton breeding programs. Negative correlation between yield and fiber quality is an obstacle for cotton improvement. Random-mating provides a potential methodology to break this correlation. The suite of fiber quality traits that affect the yarn quality includes the length, strength, maturity, fineness, elongation, uniformity and color. Identification of stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Upland cotton is essential in order to improve cotton cultivars with superior quality using marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy.
Using 11 diverse Upland cotton cultivars as parents, a random-mated recombinant inbred (RI) population consisting of 550 RI lines was developed after 6 cycles of random-mating and 6 generations of self-pollination. The 550 RILs were planted in triplicates for two years in Mississippi State, MS, USA to obtain fiber quality data. After screening 15538 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, 2132 were polymorphic among the 11 parents. One thousand five hundred eighty-two markers covering 83% of cotton genome were used to genotype 275 RILs (Set 1). The marker-trait associations were analyzed using the software program TASSEL. At p < 0.01, 131 fiber QTLs and 37 QTL clusters were identified. These QTLs were responsible for the combined phenotypic variance ranging from 62.3% for short fiber content to 82.8% for elongation. The other 275 RILs (Set 2) were analyzed using a subset of 270 SSR markers, and the QTLs were confirmed. Two major QTL clusters were observed on chromosomes 7 and 16. Comparison of these 131 QTLs with the previously published QTLs indicated that 77 were identified before, and 54 appeared novel.
The 11 parents used in this study represent a diverse genetic pool of the US cultivated cotton, and 10 of them were elite commercial cultivars. The fiber QTLs, especially QTL clusters reported herein can be readily implemented in a cotton breeding program to improve fiber quality via MAS strategy. The consensus QTL regions warrant further investigation to better understand the genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying fiber development.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-397) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is responsible for a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of essential branched-chain amino acids. Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, such as trifloxysulfuron sodium (Envoke®), can be due to mutations in the target gene itself. Alternatively, plants may exhibit herbicide tolerance through reduced uptake and translocation or increased metabolism of the herbicide. The diverse family of cytochrome P450 proteins has been suggested to be a source of novel herbicide metabolism in both weed and crop plants. In this study we generated a mapping population between resistant and susceptible cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. We found that both cultivars possess identical and sensitive ALS sequences; however, the segregation of resistance in the F2 progeny was consistent with a single dominant gene. Here we report the closely linked genetic markers and approximate physical location on chromosome 20 of the source of Envoke herbicide susceptibility in the cotton cultivar Paymaster HS26. There are no P450 proteins in the corresponding region of the G. raimondii Ulbr. genome, suggesting that an uncharacterized molecular mechanism is responsible for Envoke herbicide tolerance in G. hirsutum. Identification of this genetic mechanism will provide new opportunities for exploiting sulfonylurea herbicides for management of both weeds and crop plants.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Molecular Breeding
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic expression of a trait is complicated and it is usually associated with many genes including their interactions (epistasis) and genotype-by-environment interactions. Genetic mapping currently focuses primarily on additive models or marginal genetic effects due to the complexity of epistatic effects. Thus, there exists a need to appropriately identify favorable epistatic effects for important biological traits. Several multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) based methods are important resources to identify high-order gene–gene interactions. These methods are mainly focused on human genetic studies. Many traits in plant systems are not only quantitatively inherited but also are often measured in repeated field plots under multiple environments. In this study, we proposed a mixed model based MDR approach, which is suitable for inclusion of various fixed and random effects. This approach was used to analyze a cotton data set that included eight agronomic and fiber traits and 20 DNA markers. The results revealed high order epistatic effects were detected for most of these traits using this modified MDR approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic data collected from various plant breeding and genetic studies may not be replicated in field designs although field variation is always present. In this study, we addressed this problem using spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) trial data collected from two locations. There were no intralocation replications and an extended additive-dominance (AD) model was used to account for field variation. We numerically evaluated the data from simulations and estimated the variance components. For demonstration purposes we also analyzed three agronomic traits from the actual spring wheat data set. Results showed that these data could be effectively analyzed using an extended AD model, which was more comparable to a conventional AD model. Actual data analysis revealed that grain yield was significantly influenced by systematic field variation. Additive effects were significant for all traits and dominance effects were significant for plant height and time-to-flowering. Genetic effects were predicted and used to demonstrate that most spring wheat lines developed by the South Dakota State University breeding program (SD lines) exhibited good general combining ability effects for yield improvement. Thus, this study provides a general framework to appropriately analyze data in situations where field crop data are collected from non-replicated designs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) cultivars highly resistant to the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood] are not available. Resistant germplasm lines are available; however, the difficulty of selecting
true breeding lines has hindered applied breeding and no highly resistant cultivars are available to growers. Recently, molecular
markers on chromosomes 11 and 14 have been associated with RKN resistance, thus opening the way for marker assisted selection
(MAS) in applied breeding. Our study aimed to determine the utility of these markers for MAS. Cross one was RKN resistant
germplasm M240 RNR × the susceptible cultivar, FM966 and is representative of the initial cross a breeder would make to develop
a RKN resistant cultivar. Cross two consists of Clevewilt 6 × Mexico Wild (PI563649), which are the two lines originally used
to develop the first highly RKN resistant germplasm. Mexico Wild is photoperiodic. We phenotyped the F2 of cross one for gall index and number of RKN eggs per plant and genotyped each plant for CIR 316 (chromosome 11) and BNL
3661 (chromosome 14). From this, we verified that MAS was effective, and the QTL on chromosome 14 was primarily associated
with a dominant RKN resistance gene affecting reproduction. In the first F2 population of cross two, we used MAS to identify 11 plants homozygous for the markers on chromosomes 11 and 14, and which
also flowered in long days. Progeny of these 11 plants were phenotyped for RKN gall index and egg number and confirmed as
RKN highly resistant plants. Generally about 7–10 generations of RKN phenotyping and progeny testing were required to develop
the original RKN highly resistant germplasms. Our results show that commercial breeders should be able to use the markers
in MAS to rapidly develop RKN resistant cultivars.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient construction of large-scale linkage maps is highly desired in current gene mapping projects. To evaluate the performance of available approaches in the literature, four published methods, the insertion (IN), seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) were compared on the basis of simulated F(2) data with various population sizes, interferences, missing genotype rates, and mis-genotyping rates. Simulation results showed that the IN method outperformed, or at least was comparable to, the other three methods. These algorithms were also applied to a real data set and results showed that the linkage order obtained by the IN algorithm was superior to the other methods. Thus, this study suggests that the IN method should be used when constructing large-scale linkage maps.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of molecular markers that are closely linked to gene(s) in Gossypium barbadense L. accession GB713 that confer a high level of resistance to reniform nematode (RN), Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira, would be very useful in cotton breeding programs. Our objectives were to determine the inheritance of RN resistance in the accession GB713, to identify SSR markers linked with RN resistance QTLs, and to map these linked markers to specific chromosomes. We grew and scored plants for RN reproduction in the P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1P1, and BC1P2 generations from the cross of GB713 × Acala Nem-X. The generation means analysis using the six generations indicated that one or more genes were involved in the RN resistance of GB713. The interspecific F2 population of 300 plants was genotyped with SSR molecular markers that covered most of the chromosomes of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.). Results showed two QTLs on chromosome 21 and one QTL on chromosome 18. One QTL on chromosome 21 was at map position 168.6 (LOD 28.0) flanked by SSR markers, BNL 1551_162 and GH 132_199 at positions 154.2 and 177.3, respectively. A second QTL on chromosome 21 was at map position 182.7 (LOD 24.6) flanked by SSR markers BNL 4011_155 and BNL 3279_106 at positions 180.6 and 184.5, respectively. Our chromosome 21 map had 61 SSR markers covering 219 cM. One QTL with smaller genetic effects was localized to chromosome 18 at map position 39.6 (LOD 4.0) and flanked by SSR markers BNL 1721_178 and BNL 569_131 at positions 27.6 and 42.9, respectively. The two QTLs on chromosome 21 had significant additive and dominance effects, which were about equal for each QTL. The QTL on chromosome 18 showed larger additive than dominance effects. Following the precedent set by the naming of the G. longicalyx Hutchinson & Lee and G. aridum [(Rose & Standley) Skovsted] sources of resistance, we suggest the usage of Ren
to designate these QTLs on chromosome 21 and Ren
on chromosome 18.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular markers closely linked to genes that confer a high level of resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm derived from Auburn 623 RNR would greatly facilitate cotton breeding programs. Our objectives were to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to RKN resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map these markers to specific chromosomes. We developed three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations by single seed descent from the crosses of RKN-resistant parents M-240 RNR (M240), developed from the Auburn 623 RNR source, moderately resistant Clevewilt 6 (CLW6), one of the parents of Auburn 623 RNR, and susceptible parent Stoneville 213 (ST213). These crosses were CLW6 × ST213, M240 × CLW6, and M240 × ST213. RILs from these populations were grown under greenhouse conditions, inoculated with RKN eggs, scored for root gall index, eggs plant(-1), and eggs g(-1) root. Plants were also genotyped with SSR markers. Results indicated that a minimum of two major genes were involved in the RKN resistance of M240. One gene was localized to chromosome 11 and linked to the marker CIR 316-201. This CIR 316-201 allele was also present in CLW6 but not in Mexico Wild (MW) (PI593649), both of which are parents of Auburn 623 RNR. A second RKN resistance gene was localized to the short arm of chromosome 14 and was linked to the SSR markers BNL3545-118 and BNL3661-185. These two marker alleles were not present in CLW6 but were present in MW. Our data also suggest that the chromosome 11 resistance QTL primarily affects root galling while the QTL on chromosome 14 mediates reduced RKN egg production. The SSRs identified in this study should be useful to select plants with high levels of RKN resistance in segregating populations derived from Auburn 623 RNR.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of chromosomes or chromosome arms with desirable genes in different inbred lines and/or crosses should provide useful genetic information for crop improvement. In this study, we applied a modified additive-dominance model to analyze a data set of 13 cotton chromosome substitution lines and their recurrent parent TM-1, five commercial cultivars, and their 70 F(2) hybrids. The chromosome additive and dominance variance components for eight agronomic and fiber traits were determined. On average, each chromosome or chromosome arm was associated with 6.5 traits in terms of additive and/or dominance effects. The chromosomes or chromosome arms, which contributed significant additive variances for the traits investigated, included 2, 16, 18, 25, 5sh (short arm), 14sh, 15sh, 22sh, and 22Lo (long arm). Chromosome additive effects were also predicted in this study. The results showed that CS-B 25 was favorably associated with several fiber traits, while FM966 was favorably associated with both yield and fiber traits with alleles on multiple chromosomes or chromosome arms. Thus, this study should provide valuable genetic information on pure line development for several improved traits such as yield and fiber quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seed from upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., provides a desirable and important nutrition profile. In this study, several seed traits (protein content, oil content, seed hull fiber content, seed index, seed volume, embryo percentage) for F(3) hybrids of 13 cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with five elite cultivars over four environments were evaluated. Oil and protein were expressed both as percentage of total seed weight and as an index which is the grams of product/100 seeds. An additive and dominance (AD) genetic model with cytoplasmic effects was designed, assessed by simulations, and employed to analyze these seed traits. Simulated results showed that this model was sufficient for analyzing the data structure with F(3) and parents in multiple environments without replications. Significant cytoplasmic effects were detected for seed oil content, oil index, seed index, seed volume, and seed embryo percentage. Additive effects were significant for protein content, fiber content, protein index, oil index, fiber index, seed index, seed volume, and embryo percentage. Dominance effects were significant for oil content, oil index, seed index, and seed volume. Cytoplasmic and additive effects for parents and dominance effects in homozygous and heterozygous forms were predicted. Favorable genetic effects were predicted in this study and the results provided evidence that these seed traits can be genetically improved. In addition, chromosome associations with AD effects were detected and discussed in this study.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently released a set of 17 chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines (2n = 52) that contain Gossypium barbadense L. doubled-haploid line '3-79' germplasm systematically introgressed into the Upland inbred 'TM-1' of G. hirsutum (L.). TM-1 yields much more than 3-79, but cotton from the latter has superior fiber properties. To explore the use of these quasi-isogenic lines in studying gene interactions, we created a partial diallel among six CS-B lines and the inbred TM-1, and characterized their descendents for lint percentage, boll weight, seedcotton yield and lint yield across four environments. Phenotypic data on the traits were analyzed according to the ADAA genetic model to detect significant additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistasis effects at the chromosome and chromosome-by-chromosome levels of CS-B lines. For example, line 3-79 had the lowest boll weight, seedcotton yield and lint yield, but CS-B22Lo homozygous dominance genetic effects on seedcotton and lint yield were nearly four times those of TM-1, and its hybrids with TM-1 had the highest additive-by-additive epistatic effects on seedcotton and lint yield. CS-B14sh, 17, 22Lo and 25 produced positive homozygous dominance effects on lint yield, whereas doubly heterozygous combinations of CS-B14sh with CS-B17, 22Lo and 25 produced negative dominance effects, suggesting that epistatic effects between genes in these chromosomes strongly affect lint yield. The results underscore the opportunities to systematically identify genomic regions harboring genes that impart agronomically significant effects via epistatic interactions. The chromosome-by-chromosome approach significantly complements other strategies to detect and quantify epistatic interaction effects, and the quasi-isogenic nature of families and lines from CS-B intermatings will facilitate high-resolution localization, development of markers for selection and map-assisted identification of genes involved in strong epistatic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research detected QTL or molecular markers associated with yield, fiber, and seed traits within multiple fuzz and fiber loci genetic backgrounds. Two F2 populations from crosses of MD17, a fuzzless-lintless line containing three fuzzless loci, N
and a postulated n
, with line 181, fuzzless-linted and with FM966, a fuzzy-linted cultivar, were used. QTL explaining 68.3 (population with FM966) to 87.1% (population with 181) of the phenotypic variation for lint percentage and 62.8% (population with 181) for lint index were detected in the vicinity of BNL3482-138 on chromosome 26. Single marker regression analyses indicated STV79-108, on the long arm of chromosome 12 had significant association with lint percentage (R
2 26.7%), lint index (R
2 30.6%), embryo protein percentage (R
2 15.4%) and micronaire (R
2 20.0%). Two-locus epistatic interactions were also observed. Results from this research will facilitate further understanding the complex mechanisms of yield, fiber, and seed traits of cotton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation of cotton nutritional components is important because its seeds provide a useful nutritional profile and can possibly serve as a biofuel resource. In this study, five cultivars, 13 cotton chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines, their donor parent, '3-79', and their recurrent parent, 'TM-1', were evaluated for seed traits over four environments. A mixed linear model approach with the jackknife method was employed to estimate variance components and to predict genotypic effects for each seed trait. Genotypic effects were more important than genotype by environment interaction for all seed traits. Chromosome associations with these seed traits were detected using the comparative method by comparing the differences between each CS-B line and TM-1. For example, chromosome 4 of 3-79 in TM-1 background was associated with reduced seed index (SI), embryo percentage, protein percentage while associated with increased seed oil percentage and seed fiber percentage. Other chromosome associations with these seed traits were also observed in this study. SI was highly correlated with three seed index traits: seed protein index, seed oil index (OI), and seed fiber index. Lint percentage, boll number, and lint yield were positively correlated with protein percentage while negatively correlated with SI and OI. SI and seed fiber content exhibited negative correlations with micronaire but positive correlations with fiber length and strength. Results suggested that agronomic traits and seed nutrition components can be improved simultaneously.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flowering time has biological and agricultural significance for crops. In Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), photoperiodic sensitivity is a major obstacle in the utilization of primitive accessions in breeding programs. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis was conducted in two F₂ populations from the crosses between a day-neutral cultivar Deltapine 61 (DPL61) and two photoperiod sensitive G. hirsutum accessions (T1107 and T1354). Node of first fruiting branch (NFB) was used to measure relative time of flowering. Different flowering time genetic patterns were observed in the two populations. Two QTLs were found across five scoring dates, accounting 28.5 (qNFB-c21-1) and 15.9% (qNFB-c25-1) of the phenotypic variation at the last scoring date in Pop. 1107 (DPL61 by T1107); whereas, one major QTL (qNFB-c25-1) can be detected across five scoring dates, explained 63.5% of the phenotypic variation at the last scoring date in Pop. 1354 (DPL61 by T1354). QTLs with minor effects appeared at various scoring date(s), indicating their roles in regulating flowering at a lower or higher node number. Genetic segregation analysis and QTL mapping results provide further information on the mechanisms of cotton photoperiodic sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) plant growth is an important time-specific agronomic character that supports the development of squares, flowers, boll retention, and yield. With the use of a mixed linear model approach, we investigated 14 cotton chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines and their chromosome-specific F(2) hybrids for genetic changes in plant growth that was measured during the primary flowering time under two environments. The changes in additive and dominance variances for plant height and number of mainstem nodes are reported, showing that additive effects for these two traits were a key genetic component after initial flowering occurred in the field. Time-specific genetic variance components were also detected where phenotypic values observed at time t were conditioned on the events occurring at time t - 1, demonstrating new genetic variations arising at several time intervals during plant growth. Results also revealed that plant height and number of nodes shared some common influence due to additive effects during plant development. With the comparative analyzes, chromosomes associated with the genetic changes in plant growth were detected. Therefore, these results should add new understanding of the genetics underlying these time-specific traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic mapping is an essential tool for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) molecular breeding and application of DNA markers for cotton improvement. In this present study, we evaluated an RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F₂-derived families and their two parental lines, 'HS 46' and 'MARCABUCAG8US-1-88', at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundred forty one (141) polymorphic SSR markers were screened for this population and 125 markers were used to construct a linkage map. Twenty six linkage groups were constructed, covering 125 SSR loci and 965 cM of overall map distance. Twenty four linkage groups (115 SSR loci) were assigned to specific chromosomes. Quantitative genetic analysis showed that the genotypic effects accounted for more than 20% of the phenotypic variation for all traits except fiber perimeter (18%). Fifty six QTLs (LOD > 3.0) associated with 14 agronomic and fiber traits were located on 17 chromosomes. One QTL associated with fiber elongation was located on linkage group LGU01. Nine chromosomes in sub-A genome harbored 27 QTLs with 10 associated with agronomic traits and 17 with fiber traits. Eight chromosomes in D sub-genome harbored 29 QTLs with 13 associated with agronomic traits and 16 with fiber traits. Chromosomes 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 26 harbor important QTLs for both yield and fiber quality compared to other chromosomes. Since this RI population was developed from an intraspecific cross within upland cotton, these QTLs should be useful for marker assisted selection for improving breeding efficiency in cotton line development.