[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous access and drug administration are included in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines despite a lack of evidence for improved outcomes. Epinephrine was an independent predictor of poor outcome in a large epidemiological study, possibly due to toxicity of the drug or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) interruptions secondary to establishing an intravenous line and drug administration.
To determine whether removing intravenous drug administration from an ACLS protocol would improve survival to hospital discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Prospective, randomized controlled trial of consecutive adult patients with out-of-hospital nontraumatic cardiac arrest treated within the emergency medical service system in Oslo, Norway, between May 1, 2003, and April 28, 2008.
Advanced cardiac life support with intravenous drug administration or ACLS without access to intravenous drug administration.
The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes were 1-year survival, survival with favorable neurological outcome, hospital admission with return of spontaneous circulation, and quality of CPR (chest compression rate, pauses, and ventilation rate).
Of 1183 patients for whom resuscitation was attempted, 851 were included; 418 patients were in the ACLS with intravenous drug administration group and 433 were in the ACLS with no access to intravenous drug administration group. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 10.5% for the intravenous drug administration group and 9.2% for the no intravenous drug administration group (P = .61), 32% vs 21%, respectively, (P<.001) for hospital admission with return of spontaneous circulation, 9.8% vs 8.1% (P = .45) for survival with favorable neurological outcome, and 10% vs 8% (P = .53) for survival at 1 year. The quality of CPR was comparable and within guideline recommendations for both groups. After adjustment for ventricular fibrillation, response interval, witnessed arrest, or arrest in a public location, there was no significant difference in survival to hospital discharge for the intravenous group vs the no intravenous group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.91).
Compared with patients who received ACLS without intravenous drug administration following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, patients with intravenous access and drug administration had higher rates of short-term survival with no statistically significant improvement in survival to hospital discharge, quality of CPR, or long-term survival.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00121524.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-four paramedic students with previous basic life support training were randomised, performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a manikin for 3 min without any feedback followed by 3 min of CPR with audio feedback from the manikin after a 2-min break, or vice versa. A computer recorded information on timing, ventilation flow rates and volumes and all movements of the sternum of the manikin. The software allowed acceptable limits to be set for all ventilation and compression/release variables giving appropriate on-line audio feedback according to these settings from among approximately 40 pre-recorded messages. Students who started without feedback significantly improved after feedback in terms of the median percentage of correct inflations (from 2 to 64%), with most inflations being rapid before feedback (94%), compressions of correct depth (from 32 to 92%), and the duration of compressions in the duty cycle (from 41 to 44%). There were no problems with the median compression rate, sternal release during decompressions, or the hand position, even before feedback. There were no significant differences in any variables with and without feedback for the students who started with feedback, or between the audio feedback periods of the two groups. It is concluded that this automated voice advisory manikin system, a novel approach to basic CPR training, caused an immediate improvement in the skills performance of paramedic students.