Publications (2)6.03 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: While recognized as a promising bone substitute material, hydroxyapatite (HA) has had limited use in clinical settings because of its inherent brittle behavior. It is well established that macropores ( approximately 100 microm) in a HA implant, or scaffold, are required for bone ingrowth, but recent research has shown that ingrowth is enhanced when scaffolds also contain microporosity. HA is sensitive to synthesis and processing parameters and therefore characterization for specific applications is necessary for transition to the clinic. To that end, the mechanical behavior of bulk microporous HA and HA scaffolds with multi-scale porosity (macropores between rods in the range of 250-350 microm and micropores within the rods with average size of either 5.96 microm or 16.2 microm) was investigated in order to determine how strength and reliability were affected by micropore size (5.96 microm versus 16.2 microm). For the bulk microporous HA, strength increased with decreasing micropore size in both bending (19 MPa to 22 MPa) and compression (71 MPa to 110 MPa). To determine strength reliability, the Weibull moduli for the bulk microporous HA were determined. The Weibull moduli for bending increased (became more reliable) with decreasing pore size (7 to 10) while the Weibull moduli for compression decreased (became less reliable) with decreasing pore size (9 to 6). Furthermore, the elastic properties of the bulk microporous HA (elastic modulus of 30 GPa) and the compressive strengths of the HA scaffolds with multi-scale porosity (8 MPa) did not vary with pore size. The mechanisms responsible for the trends observed were discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The characterization of bone/scaffold composite mechanical properties is essential for translation to the clinic, but in vivo studies require resources and personnel not available to many investigators. Therefore, the ability to predict composite properties could facilitate scaffold evaluation and reduce the number of in vivo studies required. To date, there have been no studies that have used experimental data to formulate a model of bone morphology or that have examined morphology as a variable in composite properties. In this study, a simple model was developed to predict the effective elastic properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold/bone composites using representative volume elements (RVE) and finite element analysis. While the RVE for the scaffold is clear, the choice of RVE for bone is not. Two bone geometries were generated for the RVE based on data from an in vivo study: a uniform coating and bridges in pores. Three scaffolds were evaluated in order to consider the effects of scaffold material modulus and porosity. Results showed that the bone geometry had little influence on composite elastic properties when compared to experimental error from the in vivo study. The implication is that such properties can be estimated by measuring the volume fraction of bone using a non-destructive method like microcomputerized tomography and the simple RVE model.
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Urbana, Illinois, United States
- • Department of Bioengineering
- • Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering