[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Myogenic precursor cell (MPC) transplantation is a good strategy to introduce dystrophin expression in muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) promotes MPC activities, such as survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation, which could enhance the success of their transplantation. Alternative splicing of the IGF-1 mRNA produces different muscle isoforms. The mechano growth factor (MGF) is an isoform, especially expressed after a mechanical stress. A 24 amino acids peptide corresponding to the C-terminal part of the MGF E domain (MGF-Ct24E peptide) was synthesized. This peptide had been shown to enhance the proliferation and delay the terminal differentiation of C(2)C(12) myoblasts. The present study showed that the MGF-Ct24E peptide improved human MPC transplantation by modulating their proliferation and differentiation. Indeed, intramuscular or systemic delivery of this synthetic peptide significantly promoted engraftment of human MPCs in mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the MGF-Ct24E peptide enhanced MPC proliferation by a different mechanism than the binding to the IGF-1 receptor. Moreover, MGF-Ct24E peptide delayed human MPC differentiation while having no outcome on survival. Those combined effects are probably responsible for the enhanced transplantation success. Thus, the MGF-Ct24E peptide is an interesting agent to increase MPC transplantation success in DMD patients.
Full-text Article · Nov 2007 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Different molecules are available to recruit new neighboring myogenic cells to the site of regeneration. Formerly called B cell stimulatory factor-1, IL-4 can now be included in the list of motogenic factors. The present report demonstrates that human IL-4 is not required for fusion between mononucleated myoblasts but is required for myotube maturation. In identifying IL-4 as a pro-migratory agent for myogenic cells, these results provide a mechanism which partly explains IL-4 demonstrated activity during differentiation. Among the different mechanisms by which IL-4 might enhance myoblast migration processes, our results indicate that there are implications of some integrins and of three major components of the fibrinolytic system. Indeed, increases in the amount of active urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor were observed following an IL-4 treatment, while the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 decreased. Finally, IL-4 did not modify the amount of cell surface alpha5 integrin but increased the presence of beta3 and beta1 integrins. This integrin modulation might favor myogenic cell migration and its interaction with newly formed myotubes. Therefore, IL-4 co-injection with transplanted myoblasts might be an approach to enhance the migration of transplanted cells for the treatment of a damaged myocardium or of a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A main technological problem related to the clinical application of myoblast transplantation is the poor migration of transplanted cells. In this study, we investigated a new physiologic approach that consists of coinjecting motogenic factors insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to enhance the migration of human skeletal myoblasts. Among the different ways by which those factors can induce the cell migration processes, we investigated their capacity to enhance cell endogenous proteolytic activity that will help transplanted cells to migrate through the extracellular matrix.
In vitro, myoblasts were coincubated with bFGF or IGF-1. Growth factors effects on cell migration were evaluated using invasion chambers, and their effects on proteolytic systems were evaluated by zymography, Western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vivo, myoblasts were coinjected with growth factors and the intramuscular migration capacity was assessed using the microtube technique.
In vitro, the presence of IGF-1 or bFGF significantly enhanced the expression of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 and focalized the fibrinolytic system activity at the cell membrane. In vitro and in vivo, both bFGF and IGF-1 showed strong chemokinetic potentials and improved the migration of human myoblasts. Moreover, the implication some proteinases in the in vivo enhanced migration was confirmed using specific inhibitors (BB94 or amiloride).
These results suggest that IGF-1 or bFGF coinjection with human myoblasts increased their proteolytic activities and consequently their migratory capacity. This study may help to develop approaches that will reduce the number of injection sites for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Myoblast transplantation (MT) is a potential therapeutic approach for several muscular dystrophies. A major limiting factor is that only a low percentage of the transplanted myoblasts survives the procedure. Recent advances regarding how and when the myoblasts die indicate that events preceding actual tissue implantation and during the first days after the transplantation are crucial. Myoseverin, a recently identified tri-substituted purine, was shown to induce in vitro the fission of multinucleated myotubes and affect the expression of a variety of growth factors, and immunomodulation, extracellular matrix-remodeling, and stress response genes. Since the effects of myoseverin are consistent with the activation of pathways involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration, we have investigated whether pretreatment and co-injection of myoblasts with Tubulyzine (microtubule lysing triazine), an optimized myoseverin-like molecule recently identified from a triazine library, could reduce myoblast cell death following their transplantation and consequently improves the success of myoblast transplantation. In vitro, using annexin-V labeling, we showed that Tubulyzine (5 microM) prevents normal myoblasts from apoptosis induced by staurosporine (1 microM). In vivo, the pretreatment and co-injection of immortal and normal myoblasts with Tubulyzine reduced significantly cell death (assessed by the radio-labeled thymidine of donor DNA) and increased survival of myoblasts transplanted in Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of mdx mice, thus giving rise to more hybrid myofibers compared to transplanted untreated cells. Our results suggest that Tubulyzine can be used as an in vivo survival factor to improve the myoblast-mediated gene transfer approach.
Full-text Article · May 2003 · Biochemistry and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Muscle cell migration plays an important role in the incorporation of transplanted myoblasts in muscle fibers. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the high migration capacity of the C(2)C(12) myoblast cell line may help to develop approaches to improve the migration of normal myoblasts and consequently to increase their participation to the host myofiber regeneration. We have previously shown that matrix metalloproteinases are implicated in the in vivo migration of C(2)C(12). Here, we studied the role of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in this process. The expression of uPA mRNA and the enzymatic activity of uPA were studied in both normal myoblasts and the C(2)C(12) myoblast cell line. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that uPA mRNA was more strongly expressed in C(2)C(12) cells than in normal myoblasts. The enzymatic activity of secreted uPA analyzed by casein zymography is higher in medium conditioned by C(2)C(12) cells than in medium conditioned by normal myoblasts. Using our previously described microtube technique to assess in vivo cell migration, we showed that uPA is implicated in the in vivo migration of C(2)C(12) cells since this migration was abrogated in the presence of aprotinin (a general serine protease inhibitor) or amiloride (a uPA-specific inhibitor). We, therefore, hypothesized that increasing endogenous uPA expression by normal myoblasts may improve their migration capacity. Since an accumulating body of evidence has shown that growth factors regulate expression of uPA in a wide range of cells, we treated normal myoblasts with several growth factors alone or in combination with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). All stimulants tested showed a minimal to strong effect on uPA enzymatic activity as assayed by zymography analysis. The positive effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on uPA enzymatic activity was slightly potentiated in the presence of fibronectin. Moreover, the pretreatment and coinjection of mouse myoblasts with bFGF alone or in combination with fibronectin improved significantly their in vivo migration throughout the tibialis anterior muscle of mdx mice. These results suggest that increasing uPA expression by an appropriate combination of growth factors and ECM components constitutes a possible approach to improving the migration of myogenic cells after transplantation.