[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of roughage source (alfalfa hay vs. cottonseed hulls) and supplemental alpha-amylase at 950 dextrinizing units (DU)/kg of DM. Significant roughage source x alpha-amylase interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for performance. In steers fed cottonseed hulls, supplemental alpha-amylase increased ADG through d 28 and 112 and tended (P < 0.15) to increase ADG in all other periods. The increases in ADG were related to increased DMI and efficiency of gain during the initial 28-d period but were primarily related to increased DMI as the feeding period progressed. Supplemental alpha-amylase increased (P = 0.02) the LM area across both roughage sources. In Exp. 2, 96 crossbred heifers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of corn processing (dry cracked vs. high moisture) and supplemental alpha-amylase concentration (0, 580, or 1,160 DU/kg of DM). Alpha-amylase supplementation increased DMI (P = 0.05) and ADG (P = 0.03) during the initial 28 d on feed and carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.04) across corn processing methods. Longissimus muscle area was greatest (quadratic effect, P = 0.04), and yield grade was least (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) in heifers fed 580 DU of alpha-amylase/kg of DM across corn processing methods. In Exp. 3, 56 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of supplemental alpha-amylase (930 DU/kg of DM) on performance when DMI was restricted to yield a programmed ADG. Alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect performance when DMI was restricted. We conclude that dietary alpha-amylase supplementation of finishing beef diets may result in increased ADG through increased DMI under certain dietary conditions and that further research is warranted to explain its mode of action and interactions with dietary ingredients.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined the effects of a saccharin-based artificial sweetener (Sucram) on health, performance, and dietary preference of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 200 steer calves (initial BW = 190.4 +/- 1.47 kg) were fed a 65% concentrate diet supplemented with or without 200 mg of Sucram/kg (DM basis) during a 56-d receiving-growing period. Feeding Sucram did not affect overall (P = 0.19) DMI; however, from d 29 to 56, there was a trend (P = 0.10) for increased DMI with Sucram (5.71 vs. 6.02 kg/d, respectively). From d 0 to 28 and d 0 to 56, there were trends (P = 0.11 and 0.12, respectively) for increased ADG and for increased d-56 BW (P = 0.07) for calves fed Sucram. No differences were detected (P = 0.82) for receiving (REC) period morbidity. During the finishing (FIN) period, 180 steers from the REC period were assigned (9 pens/treatment in a 2 x 2 factorial design) to the following treatments: 1) control REC/control FIN; 2) control REC/Sucram FIN; 3) Sucram REC/control FIN; and 4) Sucram REC/ Sucram FIN. Over the FIN period, ADG tended (P = 0.12) to be greater for Sucram; however, carcass-adjusted ADG did not differ among treatments. Daily DMI was affected by a REC x FIN interaction (P = 0.08), which was the result of greater DMI by cattle in the Sucram REC/Sucram FIN treatment and decreased DMI by cattle in the Sucram REC/control FIN treatment. In general, changes in carcass characteristics were minor. In Exp. 2, 12 steers (initial BW = 395.6 +/- 6.17 kg) were used in a simultaneously replicated 3 x 3 Latin square preference test. Each square consisted of 3 pens, with 2 steers/pen, and 3 time periods. Bunks had dividers at their midpoint, and equal quantities of diet (as-fed basis) were delivered randomly on either side of the divider daily. Treatments were: 1) control; 2) Sucram = basal diet supplemented with 200 mg of Sucram/kg of DM; and 3) choice = control and Sucram on separate sides of the divider. Dietary preference differed on d 1 (P = 0.01) and d 3 (P = 0.02) for control vs. choice and Sucram vs. choice, with the choice group consuming 0.49 and 1.72 kg of DM more of the Sucram diet than the control diet, respectively. This effect, however, was not consistent across days, and average DMI did not differ (P = 0.81) among treatments. Addition of Sucram to the diet of newly received cattle tended to increase receiving period ADG; however, its effects on morbidity, finishing performance, and dietary preference were limited.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of whole cottonseed or cottonseed products on performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 beef steers (initial BW = 381 +/- 31.7 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets with 10% (DM basis) basal roughage, and whole cottonseed or individual cottonseed components (cottonseed hulls, meal, and oil). Over the entire feeding period, ADG did not differ (P = 0.95), but DMI increased (P = 0.07) and G:F decreased (P = 0.06) for steers fed the cottonseed diets compared with the control diet. Dressing percent (P = 0.02) and marbling scores (P = 0.02) of carcasses from steers fed the cottonseed diets were less than for steers fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, 150 beef steers (initial BW = 364 +/- 9.9 kg) were used to determine the effects of whole cottonseed or pelleted cottonseed (PCS) on performance and carcass characteristics. Cattle were fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets in which whole cottonseed or PCS replaced all of the dietary roughage, supplemental fat, and supplemental natural protein of the control diet. Over the entire feeding period, steers fed the cottonseed diets had lower (P = 0.04) DMI and greater (P < 0.01) G:F than steers fed the control diet. Carcass characteristics did not differ (P = 0.16 to 0.96) among dietary treatments. In Exp. 3, 150 beef heifers (initial BW = 331 +/- 17.1 kg) were used to determine the effects of PCS or delinted, whole cottonseed (DLCS) on performance and carcass characteristics. Heifers were fed rolled corn-based finishing diets in which cottonseed replaced the dietary roughage, supplemental fat, and all or part of the supplemental natural protein of the control diet. Over the entire feeding period, ADG, DMI, and G:F of heifers fed the control diet did not differ (P = 0.19 to 0.80) from those of the cottonseed diets; however, heifers fed the diets containing PCS had greater ADG (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.09) than heifers fed diets containing DLCS. Carcass characteristics of heifers fed the control diet did not differ (P > or = 0.28) from those fed the cottonseed diets. Heifers fed the diets containing PCS had greater (P < or = 0.03) HCW, dressing percent, and LM area than those fed DLCS. Based on our results, whole cottonseed, or products derived from processing whole cottonseed, can replace feedstuffs commonly used in beef cattle finishing diets with no adverse effects on animal performance or carcass characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of level of urea in steam-flaked corn diets containing 25% (DM basis) wet corn gluten feed on performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers. Crossbred steers (n = 240) were blocked by BW (average initial BW = 402.8 ± 10.75 kg) and assigned to dietary treatments consisting of 3 different ratios (N basis) of urea and cotton-seed meal (CSM): 1) 33% urea:67% CSM (33%); 2) 67% urea:33% CSM (67%); and 3) 100% urea:0% CSM (100%). There was a quadratic (P = 0.06) effect of the proportion of urea on ADG from d 0 to 56, and from d 0 to 112, ADG increased linearly (P = 0.09) as the proportion of urea in the diet increased. Additionally, DMI increased linearly (P = 0.001) with increasing urea level from d 0 to 28. For the entire feeding period, DMI tended (P = 0.14) to increase linearly with increasing proportion of urea. Gain:feed was affected quadratically (P = 0.09) by urea level; the maximum efficiency was noted for steers fed the 67% treatment. There was a tendency for a quadratic effect (P = 0.14) of urea level relative to hot carcass weight; cattle fed the 67% diet had the greatest hot carcass weight. Results indicate that with a steam-flaked corn finishing diet that contained 25% (DM basis) wet corn gluten feed, providing supplemental CP with a ratio of at least 67% urea:33% CSM (N basis) improved ADG and gain efficiency compared with 33% urea:67% CSM.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · The Professional Animal Scientist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receiving cattle into feedlot or back-grounding facilities is a critical activity with respect to cattle health and performance. Because the receiving period is crucial to the economic outcome of cattle feeding, the opposing strategies of starting cattle on higher vs. lower roughage diets continue to be debated in the cattle feeding industry. The rationale for starting cattle on a high roughage diet is based on the perceived advantage of decreasing mortality and morbidity, as these two aspects of cattle health can affect overall economics markedly. Conversely, the rationale for starting cattle on a diet with less roughage and more concentrate is based on the perceived improvement in performance and, thereby, increased profitability. Nonetheless, concerns that lower roughage diets negatively affect receiving period morbidity have been noted in both industry and research settings. In this review, we used mixed model regression methods on research data generated at one location over several years to evaluate the relationship between dietary roughage concentration (DM basis) and receiving period morbidity, ADG, and DMI. Morbidity from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) decreased slightly as dietary roughage concentration increased [morbidity (%) = 49.59 − 0.0675 × roughage (%); P = 0.003], whereas ADG [ADG (kg) = 1.17 − 0.0089 × roughage (%); P<0.001] and DMI [DMI (kg/d) = 5.34 − 0.0135 × roughage (%); <0.001] were affected negatively by increasing dietary roughage concentration. Economic analysis indicated that the decreased morbidity with a 100% vs 40% roughage diet would not offset the loss in profit resulting from less ADG when the 100% roughage diet was fed. The optimum dietary strategy for starting light-weight, highly stressed, newly received cattle on feed would likely be to feed a 50 to 75% concentrate, milled diet, which seems to allow cattle to perform well without economically important negative effects on receiving period health. Application of this dietary strategy obviously depends on the available feed milling and delivery facilities, and dietary approaches with lesser facility and equipment requirements (e.g., whole corn, protein supplement, and free-choice roughage) may be cost-effective alternatives to complete milled feeds.
Preview · Article · Oct 2005 · The Professional Animal Scientist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixteen crossbred (British x Continental; average un-shrunk body weight = 507.9 kg; SD = 45.6 kg) beef heifers fed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet with melengestrol acetate (0.4 mg/heifer daily) included to suppress estrus were used in a completely random design to evaluate the efficacy of buccal administration of 0, 10, 100, or 1000 mg of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, (25-OH D3). Serum Ca, P, Mg, 25-OH D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2 D3], albumin, and protein were measured 24 h before dosing (-24 h), at dosing (0 h), and 6 and 24 h after dosing, after which the cattle were slaughtered at a commercial facility. Samples of kidneys, liver, longissimus lumborum, and triceps brachii were collected and evaluated for concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2 D3. With -24 and 0 h as baseline covariates, a significant time x treatment interaction was observed for serum 25-OH D3 and Ca concentrations, but not for serum 1,25-(OH)2 D3. Supplemental 25-OH D3 doses of 100 and 1000 mg significantly increased serum 25-OH D3 at 24 h after dosing, 1,25-(OH)2 D3 at 6 and 24 h after dosing, and serum Ca at 24 h after dosing. Similarly, buccal dosing of 1000 mg of supplemental 25-OH D3 significantly increased (approximately 2- to 3-fold) concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 in the kidney, liver, and longissimus lumborum relative to the other 3 treatments but not in triceps brachii. Serum albumin, protein, P, and Mg were not affected by treatment. Based on these results, buccal administration of 100 and 1000 mg 25-OH D3 increased vitamin D3 metabolites in serum and tissues, and it should be an effective method of delivering the vitamin.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Dairy Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of three doses of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and a combination treatment of strains NP51 and NP45 on prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. Three hundred steers were assigned randomly to 60 pens (five steers per pen) and received one of five treatments: (i) control, no added direct-fed microbial; (ii) HNP51, high dose of NP51 at 10(9) CFU per steer daily; (iii) MNP51, NP51 at 10(8) CFU per steer daily; (iv) LNP51, low dose of NP51 at 10(7) CFU per steer daily; and (v) NP51+45, NP51 at 10(9) CFU per steer daily and NP45 at 106 CFU per steer daily. All direct-fed microbial treatments included Propionibacterium freudenreichii at 10(9) CFU per steer. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected on arrival and every 28 days throughout the feeding period. Fecal and hide samples were collected on the day of harvest. Samples were analyzed for presence of E. coli O157 using immunomagnetic separation methods. Cattle receiving HNP51, MNP51, and LNP51 had a lower prevalence (P < 0.01) of E. coli O157 throughout the feeding period compared with the controls, and the dose response for NP51 was a linear decrease in prevalence with increasing dose (P < 0.01). No decrease in prevalence for cattle receiving the combination NP51+45 was detected compared with controls (P = 0.15). E. coli O157 prevalences averaged across collection times were 23.9, 10.5, 9.9, 6.8, and 17.3% for cattle in the control, LNP51, MNP51, HNP51, and NP51 +45 groups, respectively. Least squares mean estimates of fecal prevalence at harvest of E. coli O157 were 31.7, 12.5, 17.4, 8.2, and 41.6% among cattle in the control, LNP51, MNP51, HNP51, and NP51+45 groups, respectively. Least squares mean estimates of the percentage of positive hide samples at harvest were 8.7, 5.9, 4.8, 3.4, and 8.6% among cattle in the control, LNP51, MNP51, HNP51, and NP51+45 groups, respectively. The greatest decrease in E. coli O157 carriage was achieved using NP51 at 10(9) CFU per steer.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of food protection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted at two locations to determine the effects of dietary CP concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentrations of finishing beef steers. British x Continental steers were blocked by BW (357 +/- 28 and 305 +/- 25 kg initial BW; n = 360 and 225; four and five pens per treatment in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Steam-flaked corn-based diets were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial with three CP concentrations (11.5, 13, or 14.5% of DM) and three sources of supplemental CP (N basis): 100% urea; 50:50 blend of urea and cottonseed meal; or 100% cottonseed meal. Steers in both experiments were initially implanted with Ralgro and reimplanted with Revalor-S on d 56. Performance and carcass data were pooled across locations. Crude protein concentration x source interactions were not observed (P = 0.22 to 0.93) for performance and carcass data. Crude protein concentration affected ADG (P = 0.02) and carcass-adjusted (to a common dressing percent within location) ADG quadratically (P = 0.06). Increasing the concentration of supplemental urea linearly increased carcass-adjusted ADG and G:F (P < 0.05) and carcass-adjusted G:F (P < 0.001). Dry matter intake was not affected (P = 0.93) by either CP concentration or source. Hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), LM area (P = 0.05), and dressing percent (P = 0.03) increased linearly with increasing urea concentration, whereas increasing CP concentration quadratically affected HCW (P = 0.02), with a maximum at 13% CP. Differences in backfat thickness and yield grade were negligible across treatments. Neither marbling score nor percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice was affected by CP concentration or source. At all times measured, SUN concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CP concentration, but effects of CP source were small and variable across time. Results indicate that increasing CP concentrations from 11.5 to 13% slightly increased ADG and carcass-adjusted ADG, whereas increasing the proportion of supplemental urea increased carcass-adjusted ADG, G:F, and carcass-adjusted G:F and increased HCW, LM area, and dressing percent. A CP concentration above 13% seemed detrimental to ADG and HCW. Serum urea N increased over time, with CP concentration having a greater effect than CP source.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Cu and Zn source on performance, morbidity, and humoral immune response in lightweight, newly received beef heifers. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used in both experiments, with either a sulfate or a polysaccharide mineral complex (SQM) source of both Cu and Zn as the factors. Supplemental Cu and Zn were included in the receiving diet at concentrations designed to provide 10 mg of Cu/kg and 75 mg of Zn/kg (DM basis). In Exp. 1, 219 newly received beef heifers (British x Continental, average initial BW = 208 kg) were given ad libitum access to a 65% concentrate diet for 35 d to determine treatment effects on DMI, ADG, G:F, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity. In Exp. 2, 24 heifers (average initial BW = 272 kg) were fed a diet with no supplemental Cu or Zn for 35 d, followed by fasting-refeeding-fasting stress, after which the same treatment diets used in Exp. 1 were fed for 21 d to examine the effects on humoral immune response (plasma IgG titer determined by ELISA on d 7, 14, and 21) to an ovalbumin (OVA) vaccine given on d 0 and 14. Copper source x Zn source interactions were not detected in either experiment. In Exp. 1, neither Cu nor Zn source affected (P > 0.10) DMI, ADG, G:F, or BRD morbidity. In Exp. 2, d 14 (P = 0.02) and 21 (P = 0.06) OVA titers were greater for heifers that received SQM Zn compared with heifers receiving ZnSO4, but heifers receiving CuSO4 had greater OVA titers than did heifers on the SQM Cu treatment on d 14 (P = 0.01) and 21 (P = 0.001). In summary, neither supplemental Cu nor Zn source affected performance or morbidity of lightweight, newly received heifers; however, source of both Cu or Zn affected the humoral immune response to OVA, although source effects were not consistent for the two minerals.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A winter grazing/feedlot performance experiment repeated over 2 yr (Exp. 1) and a metabolism experiment (Exp. 2) were conducted to evaluate effects of grazing dormant native range or irrigated winter wheat pasture on subsequent intake, feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, total-tract digestion of nutrients, and ruminal digesta kinetics in beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 30 (yr 1) or 67 (yr 2) English crossbred steers that had previously grazed native range (n = 38) or winter wheat (n = 59) for approximately 180 d were allotted randomly within previous treatment to feedlot pens (yr 1 native range = three pens [seven steers/pen], winter wheat = two pens [eight steers/pen]; yr 2 native range = three pens [eight steers/pen], winter wheat = four pens [10 or 11 steers/pen]). As expected, winter wheat steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG while grazing than did native range steers. In contrast, feedlot ADG and gain efficiency were greater (P < 0.02) for native range steers than for winter wheat steers. Hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were greater (P < 0.01) for winter wheat steers than for native range steers. In contrast, 12th-rib fat depth (P < 0.64) and yield grade (P < 0.77) did not differ among treatments. In Exp. 2, eight ruminally cannulated steers that had previously grazed winter wheat (n = 4; initial BW = 407 +/- 12 kg) or native range (n = 4; initial BW = 293 +/- 23 kg) were used to determine intake, digesta kinetics, and total-tract digestion while being adapted to a 90% concentrate diet. The adaptation and diets used in Exp. 2 were consistent with those used in Exp. 1 and consisted of 70, 75, 80, and 85% concentrate diets, each fed for 5 d. As was similar for intact steers, restricted growth of cannulated native range steers during the winter grazing phase resulted in greater (P < 0.001) DMI (% of BW) and ADG (P < 0.04) compared with winter wheat steers. In addition, ruminal fill (P < 0.01) and total-tract OM digestibility (P < 0.02) were greater for native range than for winter wheat steers across the adaptation period. Greater digestibility by native range steers early in the finishing period might account for some of the compensatory gain response. Although greater performance was achieved by native range steers in the feedlot, grazing winter wheat before finishing resulted in fewer days on feed, increased hot carcass weight, and improved carcass merit.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Exp. 1, 240 beef steers (initial BW = 332.8 kg) were used to determine the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) plus Propionibacterium freudenreichii (PF) on performance, carcass, and intestinal characteristics; serum IgA concentrations; and the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 (EC). Cattle were fed a steam-flaked corn-based, 92% concentrate diet, and the four direct-fed microbial (DFM) treatments (12 pens/treatment) included in a randomized complete block design were as follows: 1) control, lactose carrier only (CON); 2) 1 x 10(9) cfu of LA NP51 plus 1 x 10(6) cfu of LA NP45 plus 1 x 10(9) cfu of PF NP24 per animal daily (LA45-51H); 3) 1 x 10(9) cfu of LA NP51 plus 1 x 10(9) cfu of PF NP24 per animal daily (LA51); and 4) 1 x 10(6) cfu of LA NP51 plus 1 x 10(6) cfu of LA NP45 plus 1 x 10(9) cfu of PF NP24 per animal daily (LA45-51L). No differences (P > 0.10) were detected for pen-based performance data. The average lamina propria thickness for LA51 and LA45-51H steers was less (P = 0.02) than the average for CON and LA45-51L steers. Moreover, LA51 and LA45-51H steers had a lower (P = 0.06) prevalence of EC shedding than CON and LA45-51L steers. In Exp. 2, 660 steers fed 91% concentrate, steam-flaked corn-based diets were used to determine the effects of the following DFM treatments (10 pens/treatment) on performance, carcass, and intestinal characteristics: 1) control, lactose carrier only (CON); 2) 5 x 10(6) cfu of LA NP51 plus 5 x 10(6) cfu of LA NP45 plus 1 x 10(9) cfu of PF NP24 per animal daily (LA45-51L); and 3) 1 x 10(9) cfu of LA NP51 plus 5 x 10(6) cfu of LA NP45 plus 1 x 10(9) cfu of PF NP24 per animal daily (LA45-51H). Steers were from two weight groups (WG). One group (SDOF; BW at arrival = 351.5 kg) had grazed before arrival, and the other group (LDOF; BW at arrival = 314 kg) had been in a grower yard. A split plot was used with WG as the whole-plot factor and DFM in the split plot. There was an interaction of WG and DFM for ADG (P = 0.05) and for carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.08). The simple-effect ADG and carcass-adjusted ADG means for DFM treatments differed (P < or = 0.01) between WG classifications. Within SDOF, ADG for CON and LA45-51L did not differ (P = 0.70), but both were less (P < or = 0.08) than for LA45-51H. Overall, these data indicate that live cultures of LA plus PF did not greatly affect feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Some of the DFM used decreased fecal EC shedding, which might be related to the results for ileal lamina propria thickness.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted evaluating dietary level of vitamin E and methods of delivering vitamin E to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 16 beef steers were used to examine effects of 0, 285, 570, or 1,140 IU of vitamin E/d per animal on performance, febrile response, and metabolic responses following intranasal exposure to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). In Exp. 2, 120 steer calves were used to evaluate efficacy of three methods of delivering vitamin E on performance and health during a 28-d receiving period. Treatments were an oral drench of vitamin E, a subcutaneous injection of vitamin E, or supplemental vitamin E added to the 70% concentrate diet. No effects (P>0.10) of vitamin E concentration on ADG, BW, DMI, or serum metabolites were observed in Exp. 1. A linear increase (P<0.10) in rectal temperature was detected on d 2 and 3; cattle that received the greatest level of vitamin E had the greatest and most rapid increase in rectal temperature overall (P<0.02). In Exp. 2, no effects of delivery method were evident for ADG, DMI, or gain efficiency. Cattle receiving a drench or injection had a lesser (P<0.13) percentage of morbidity (85% vs 95%) than those receiving dietary vitamin E. Results suggest that supplemental vitamin E may increase the inflammatory response to a viral pathogen and that providing vitamin E by injection or oral drench may be more beneficial than feeding vitamin E.
Preview · Article · Apr 2003 · The Professional Animal Scientist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Digestive disorders account for approximately 25 to 33% of deaths in feedlot cattle and likely contribute to decreased performance and efficiency of production. A variety of nutritional, management, genetic, behavioural, and environmental factors seem to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders in feedlot cattle. Excessive production of acid in the rumen is often either the cause of or a significant contributing factor to metabolic and nutritional disorders, including acute or sub-acute (chronic) acidosis, liver abscesses, and feedlot bloat. Decreasing the percentage of highly fermentable concentrates in feedlot diets by increasing roughage level or limiting feed intake should decrease the incidence of these disorders, but this approach is usually not economically feasible. Careful feed bunk management is often thought to be important for decreasing the incidence of nutritionally related disorders, but research to support its importance is limited and conflicting. Certain feed additives like ionophores seem to be effective for decreasing the incidence of acidosis and feedlot bloat, presumably through decreased total feed intake, smaller and more frequent meals, and direct effects on the ruminal microbial population. The incidence of liver abscesses can be decreased by the feeding of various antibiotics. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) can result from several causes, including thiamine deficiency; however, recent data suggests that overproduction of H2S in the rumen is an important cause of PEM when intakes (feed and water) of sulfur are high in feedlot cattle.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of dietary vitamin E on receiving performance and health and on finishing performance of beef cattle. One hundred twenty beef steers (Exp. 1; initial BW = 173 kg) and 200 beef heifers (Exp. 2; initial BW = 204 kg) were assigned randomly to one of three treatment diets formulated to supply 285, 570, or 1,140 IU/animal daily of supplemental vitamin E during the receiving period. Average daily gain, gain:feed, and DMI were calculated every 14 d, with pen as the experimental unit. Morbidity and retreatment data were analyzed using a nonparametric procedure. After the receiving period, cattle were assigned to a grazing period followed by a finishing program and fed until slaughter. In Exp. 3, 17 beef steers were used to evaluate effects of the same three vitamin E levels on humoral immune response to an ovalbumin vaccine given on d 0 and 14. Jugular blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, and 21. In Exp. 1, vitamin E did not affect (P > 0.10) ADG, DMI, or gain:feed for d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, or 0 to 28. No effects were noted for percentage of morbidity; however, cattle receiving 1,140 IU/d had a numerically (P = 0.15) lower incidence of retreatment. During the 91-d finishing phase, a quadratic effect (P < 0.08) was noted for DMI, ADG, backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and yield grade. In Exp. 2, a tendency for a linear (P = 0.10) increase in ADG was observed for the first 14 d of receiving; however, ADG decreased linearly (P = 0.06) with vitamin E concentration thereafter. For the 28-d period, ADG and DMI did not differ among treatments, but gain:feed decreased linearly (P < 0.05) for d 14 to 28 and for d 0 to 28. No effects on percentage morbidity were noted in Exp. 2, and no differences were detected for ADG, gain:feed, or DMI for the 98-d finishing period. There was a linear increase in yield grade (P < 0.05) and a linear (P < 0.08) decrease in longissimus muscle area with increasing vitamin E. Heifers receiving 570 IU of vitamin E during the receiving period tended to have a higher (P < 0.09) dressing percentage at slaughter. In Exp. 3, no significant differences were detected in serum IgG titers to ovalbumin on d 0, 7 or 14; however, on d 21, a linear increase (P = 0.07) in serum IgG titers was noted with supplemental vitamin E. Supplemental vitamin E had limited effects on performance; however, effects on humoral immune response and recovery from respiratory disease warrant further research.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxytropis sericea and Astragulus mollissimus (commonly referred to as locoweeds) are responsible for significant monetary losses annually to producers in the western United States. Therefore, a study was conducted over 2 yr to evaluate the influence of beef breeds (Brangus, Charolais, and Hereford) on locoweed consumption. Twenty-one steers (seven per breed group) were used initially in each year of the study on pastures located near Sofia, NM in yr 1 and on pastures located near Des Moines, NM in yr 2. Steers were placed in separate pastures for each breed (3 pastures/yr) and were rotated through pastures on a weekly basis. Number of bites taken of cool and warm season grasses, forbs, and locoweed were recorded daily for each steer. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 21, and 28 for determination of serum alkaline phosphatase. A breed x year interaction (P < 0.10) was observed for locoweed consumption. During yr 1, Brangus cattle consumed more locoweed during wk 1 of the study than Charolais or Herefords (12, 2, and 3% of bites recorded for Brangus, Charolais, and Hereford, respectively). During yr 2, Brangus cattle consumed more (P < 0.10) locoweed during wk 1 (15, 2, and 0%), wk 2 (6, 1, and 1%), and wk 3 (9, 4, and 0% for Brangus, Charolais, and Hereford, respectively) of the experiment compared with Charolais and Hereford cattle. No differences were noted among breeds for serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations during yr 1. Serum AP was increased (P < 0.01) for Brangus versus Charolais and Hereford on d 7 and 14 during yr 2. Results suggest that differences among breeds exist for locoweed consumption.
Preview · Article · Mar 2002 · The Professional Animal Scientist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ruminally protected choline (RPC) was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, beef steers (n = 160; average initial BW = 350.9 kg) were fed a 90% concentrate diet with either 0, .25, .5, or 1.0% RPC (DM basis) for 112 to 140 d. Feeding .25% RPC increased ADG 11.6% compared with 0% RPC, but responses diminished with increasing RPC level (cubic response, P < .10). Daily DMI was not affected by RPC level, but feed:gain was improved 6.8% with .25% RPC compared with 0% RPC, and responses diminished with increasing RPC level (cubic response, P < .10). Carcass yield grade increased linearly (P < .10) as RPC level increased, but marbling score was lower for all three RPC-containing diets than for the 0% RPC diet (quadratic response, P < .05). In Exp. 2, 20 Suffolk lambs (initial BW = 29.8 kg) were fed an 80% concentrate diet for 56 d with the same RPC levels as in Exp. 1. Serum triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol (CLSTRL) were measured in weekly blood samples, and intensive blood samples were collected on d 28 and 56 to evaluate serum insulin (INS), GH, and NEFA. For the 56-d feeding period, ADG responded quadratically (P < .10) to RPC level, but DMI and feed:gain were not affected. Serum INS and NEFA concentrations increased linearly (P < .05) and serum GH responded cubically (P < .05) to RPC level on d 28, but no differences were noted on d 56. Serum TG concentrations in weekly samples increased linearly (P < .10) with RPC level, but, averaged over all weeks, serum CLSTRL concentrations did not differ (P > .10) among treatments. Quantities of carcass mesenteric (P < .05) and kidney fat (P < .10) increased linearly, but longissimus muscle and liver fat contents did not differ (P > .10) among RPC levels. Supplementing RPC in high-concentrate diets improved performance, but results were not consistent among RPC levels or between cattle and sheep. Potential effects of RPC might be mediated through alterations in fat metabolism and(or) metabolic hormones related to fat metabolism.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ninety-one crossbred (British x Continental) steer and bull (17.5%) calves (average BW = 231 + 17.5 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to examine the effects of intranasal administration of a lysozyme/zinc/carbopol preparation on health and performance of lightweight, newly received cattle. Calves were assigned randomly to pens, and each pair of pens (block) was assigned randomly to one of two treatments at receiving : 1) intranasal (1 mL/nostril) of a lysozyme/zinc/carbopol solution (LYS); or 2) intranasal glycerol and water solution (CON). The lysozyme/zinc/carbopol solution was composed of 2.5 g of lysozyme, 2 g of zinc acetate, 1.25 g of carbopol 940, and 75 mL of glycerin brought to 100 mL volume with deionized water. Cattle were allowed ad libitum consumption of a 65% concentrate receiving diet along with long-stem alfalfa hay. Hay was fed for the first 6 d, after which only the 65% concentrate diet was offered. Cattle were monitored daily for signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with antibiotics as needed based on rectal temperature (> 39.7oC). Body weight was measured on d 14 and 28 to determine ADG, and DMI was measured for the same time intervals as ADG. Intranasal administration of LYS did not affect (P > 0.10) ADG for d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, or 0 to 28, nor did it affect feed:gain at any period of the study. H owever, administration of LYS tended to decrease (P < 0.08) DMI from d 0 to 14 and from d 0 to 28 (P < 0.11), and a trend (P < 0.12) for increased morbidity from BRD was observed for cattle receiving intranasal LYS. When analyzed by day after arrival, LYS increased morbidity (P < 0.03) on d 5 following receiving compared with CON. Results suggest that administration of LYS intranasally at receiving tended to increase morbidity later in the receiving period and decrease DMI, possibly because intranasal LYS might have increased the potential for later re-inoculation of the nas opharynx by respiratory pathogens.