[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hundred and twenty five (225) 28 day-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five treatment diets of 45 birds per treatment and replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate. Soyabean meal (full fat) was replaced with Potash Boiled Bambara Groundnut Meal (PBBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 70 and 100% levels. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolizable energy. At the end of the 4th week, one bird per replicate (3 birds per treatment) were randomly picked, fasted over night and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. The thighs of one bird per replicate were deboned and the tendons removed for organoleptic quality assessment. The results of the carcass characteristics indicated no significant differences (p>0.05) among the treatments for the weights of the various parts measured. On the cut-up parts, the percentage weights of the breast, back, drum-stick and thigh, showed significant differences (p<0.05) in all the treatment groups. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the percentage weights of the spleen and gizzard; lengths of the proventriculus and the large intestine. The juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability of the broiler meat were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the treatments, thought the tenderness significantly (p<0.05) varied among the treatments.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · International Journal of Poultry Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of replacing GNC with urea-treated and fermented BDG in broiler finisher diets was investigated. Urea -treated and fermented BDG was used to replace GNC at 0,25,50,75 and 100% levels in broiler finisher diets. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 20% crude protein and 3000Kcal/kg metabolizable energy. One hundred and ninety-five 35days old broiler chicks of Anak breed were randomly allocated to five equal dietary treatments of 13 chicks per replicate and 39 chicks per treatment and fed ad libitum in rearing cages. At the end of the 8th week, 9 broiler birds per treatment (3 birds per replicate) were randomly selected from the five treatment groups for metabolic study. At 8weeks of age two birds per treatment fasted over night were weighed and slaughtered for carcass measurements. Economic analysis of broiler production was carried out. At 56 days, the mean body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio were not significantly (P>0.05) different for all treatment groups. Nutrient digestibility and retention were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by urea-treated and fermented BDG incorporation in the diets. Carcass quality parameters and organ weights were not significantly (P>0.05) different in all treatment groups. Mortality level (5-7%) was normal and evenly spread across all treatment groups. Cost reduction and savings were better with urea-treated and fermented BDG diets.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nigeria has as one of its agricultural policy objectives the attainment of food security through self sufficiency. Against this background, the paper examined the status of the domestic food security of Delta state. Two factors to food security were considered, namely; access to farmland and output. The period reviewed was 1992 to 2004. The three major staple food crops of cassava, maize and yam were used. All data were obtained from secondary sources. Production figures were converted to calorie equivalent to allow for their addition. And time series analytical tools and graph were applied. Among the major findings were that hectarage and output had upward slopes; yam was, though less favoured in terms of hectarage with the least slope coefficient of +0.22ha. had the highest potential for annual increase with a slope coefficient of +26.29.mmtons. Calorie/caput/day had a trend equation of CP =3780.36 + 49.09cal with a MAD of 167.88cal. This, translated, means that Delta state had, on the average, a net surplus of 87.61% cal/caput/day from plant food sources over the recommended minimum requirements of 2,290cal from plant products by FAO (FOS, 2001). The paper, however, cautioned that the problems of poor storage facilities and poor distribution system within the state could be a threat to the translation of the "macro" domestic food security into anything meaningful in many communities since they hinder access to food.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of urea treatment and fermentation on the nutritive value of brewer's dried grains as a feed ingredient was investigated. Chemical analysis for their proximate and detergent fibre compositions showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in the crude protein and ether extract contents of all urea-treated and fermented BDG. The crude fibre contents were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all treated samples with increased urea concentration. Ash content and gross energy values were not different. The nitrogen free extract progressively and significantly decreased with increasing urea concentration. The neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the urea - treated and fermented BDG were significantly (P<0.05) reduced at all treatment levels. The value of the detergent fibre fractions in the urea-treated and fermented BDG are highly correlated with urea concentration for all treatment levels. The degraded crude fibre and the increased crude protein contents are indicative of the fact that subjecting BDG to urea treatment and fermentation can enhance its nutritional qualities as a feed ingredient. Fermentation duration applied had no effect on nutritive value of urea-treated products in this investigation. The 2% urea concentration and 7 days fermentation period is recommended because it gave the best possible result at the least concentration, cost and time without toxicity problems.