[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective anti-inflammatory agents available for the treatment of asthma but they produce only modest effects on airway inflammation and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). However, little is known about the possibility that treatment with ICS might cause additional protection on BHR to inhaled tachykinins such as neurokinin A (NKA).
Therefore, we compared the effects of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) on the degree of BHR to inhaled histamine and NKA in a double-blind, controlled, cross-over study of asthmatic patients.
Patients attended the laboratory before and after each 6 weeks treatment period to undertake concentration-response studies with histamine and NKA. Bronchial responsiveness to both funs was expressed as the provocative concentration producing a 20% decrease in FEV(1) from baseline (PC(20)).
BDP therapy attenuated the constrictor response to both agonists to a similar degree, their geometric mean (range) PC(20) values increasing from 0.47 (0.21-1.41) mg/ml to 2.43 (0.51-4.50) mg/ml (P<0.01, post-salb vs. post-BDP treatment) and from 101.7 (27.3-356.1) microg/ml to 666.7 (151.5-1,000) microg/ml (P<0.01, post-salb vs. post-BDP treatment) for histamine and NKA, respectively.
Airway responsiveness to histamine and NKA is reduced by BDP to the same extent. As a result of these findings, provocation with NKA is unlikely to provide additional useful information in the assessment of airway inflammation in asthma.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Respiratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma which is often associated with airways inflammation. However, some patients with allergic rhinitis and no clinical evidence of asthma also exhibit BHR. This study therefore investigated whether inflammatory cell infiltrate is present in the induced sputum of nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis during the pollen season and examined its relationship with airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP). Twenty subjects (12 allergic rhinitis, eight nonallergic controls) underwent methacholine and AMP challenge and sputum induction with hypertonic saline on separate days. Cell differentials were calculated from whole sputum samples. A significantly greater number of eosinophils was found in the sputum of nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis compared to that of nonallergic controls, their median (range) percentages being 17.5 (4-47) and 1.5 (0-5) (p<0.001) respectively. Although sputum eosinophilia failed to be significantly associated with methacholine responsiveness (r(s)=-0.50; p=0.095), the provocative concentration of AMP causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second correlated strongly and significantly with the absolute number of eosinophils (r(s)= -0.73; p=0.007). Eosinophil cationic protein levels in the sputum of rhinitic subjects were significantly elevated compared to controls and correlated with eosinophil number (r(s)=0.67; p=0.017). These findings support the view that bronchial eosinophilia alone is insufficient to cause asthmatic symptoms. Diverse agonists for assessing bronchial hyperresponsiveness are selectively associated with airway inflammation in allergic rhinitis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2000 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of airway responsiveness by bronchoprovocation and bronchodilatation tests is important in the diagnostic work-up protocol of bronchial asthma and it would be convenient to undertake both tests on the same occasion. However, it is not known whether this can be done accurately. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of a prior bronchial provocation test on the bronchodilator response to salbutamol after spontaneous recovery of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in a group of asthmatic subjects. On two separate occasions at the same time of day, concentration-response studies with inhaled histamine or methacholine, or a sham challenge with normal saline were carried out in a blinded, randomized manner. Changes in airway calibre were followed as FEV1 and agonist responsiveness expressed as the provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20). After either spontaneous recovery or a fixed-duration wait of 45 min (when appropriate), the subjects received 2x100 microg of salbutamol from a metered dose inhaler with a spacer. The bronchodilator response to salbutamol was expressed as a percentage of initial FEV1 (deltaFEV1% init). Bronchial challenge with both agonists failed to alter significantly the airway response to salbutamol, with the deltaFEV1% init mean value (range) being 16.9% (9.0-31.9) and 17.5% (11.6-31.2) on the sham and histamine/methacholine challenge day respectively. It was shown that the degree of bronchodilatation achieved after salbutamol 200 microg is not affected by prior bronchoprovocation testing when enough time is allowed for the airways to recover spontaneously to baseline forced expiratory volume in one second. Thus evaluation of airway responsiveness by both bronchial provocation tests and bronchodilator testing can be assessed reliably within a few hours in asthmatic patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhaled frusemide exerts a protective effect against bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli in asthma which could be due to interference of airway nerves. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study was performed to investigate the effect of the potent loop diuretic, frusemide, administered by inhalation on the bronchoconstrictor response to neurokinin A (NKA) and histamine in 11 asthmatic subjects.
Subjects attended the laboratory on four separate occasions to receive nebulised frusemide (40 mg) or matched placebo 10 minutes prior to bronchial challenge with NKA and histamine in a randomised, double blind order. Changes in airway calibre were followed as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and responsiveness to the agonists was expressed as the provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 from baseline (PC20).
Compared with placebo, inhaled frusemide reduced the airway responsiveness to NKA in all the subjects studied, the geometric mean (range) values for PC20NKA increasing significantly (p < 0.001) from 130.3 (35.8-378.8) to 419.9 (126.5-1000) micrograms/ml after placebo and frusemide, respectively. Moreover, a small but significant change in airway responsiveness to histamine was recorded after frusemide, their geometric mean (range) PC20 values being 0.58 (0.12-3.80) and 1.04 (0.28-4.33) mg/ml after placebo and frusemide, respectively.
The decrease in airway responsiveness to NKA after administration of frusemide by inhalation suggests that this drug may interfere with the activation of neurotransmission in human asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenously released cyclooxygenase products modulate the bronchoconstrictor response to various stimuli in asthma. Little is known of the change in airway responsiveness to neurokinin A (NKA) after cyclooxygenase blockade. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we have investigated the effect of the potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, lysine acetylsalicylate (L-ASA) administered by inhalation, on the bronchoconstrictor response both to neurokinin A (NKA) and methacholine in nine asthmatic subjects. Subjects attended the laboratory on four separate occasions to receive nebulized L-ASA (solution of 90 mg.mL-1) or matched placebo (glycine, solution of 30 mg.mL-1) 15 min prior to bronchial challenge with NKA or methacholine, in a randomized, double-blind order. Changes in airway calibre were followed as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and agonist responsiveness, expressed as the provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 from baseline (PC20). L-ASA elicited a significant fall in FEV1 from baseline. When compared with placebo, inhaled L-ASA reduced the airway responsiveness to NKA in 8 of the 9 subjects studied, the geometric mean (range) values for PC20 NKA increasing significantly from 153.2 (52.0-258.9) to 303.1 (83.4-668.5) micrograms.mL-1 after placebo and L-ASA, respectively. However, no significant change in airway responsiveness to methacholine was recorded after L-ASA, their geometric mean (range) PC20 values being 1.60 (0.17-9.59) and 1.53 (0.09-14.01) mg.mL-1 after placebo and L-ASA, respectively. The small decrease in airway responsiveness to neurokinin A after administration of lysine acetylsalicylate by inhalation suggests that endogenous prostaglandins may play a contributory protective role in the airway response to neurokinin A in human asthma.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1996 · European Respiratory Journal