[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil and food crop in the world. Pod- and kernel-related traits are direct factors involved in determining the yield of the peanut. However, the genetic basis underlying pod- and kernel-related traits in the peanut remained largely unknown, which hampered the improvement of peanut through marker-assisted selection. To understand the genetic basis underlying pod- and kernel-related traits in the peanut and provide more useful information for marker-assisted breeding, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for pod length and width and seed length and width by use of two F 2:3 populations derived from cultivar Fuchuan Dahuasheng × ICG 6375 (FI population) and cultivar Xuhua 13 × cultivar Zhonghua 6 (XZ population) in this study.
Two genetic maps containing 347 and 228 polymorphic markers were constructed for FI and XZ populations respectively. In total, 39 QTLs explaining 1.25–26.11 % of the phenotypic variations were detected in two populations. For the FI population, 26 QTLs were detected between the two environments, among which twelve were not mapped before. For the XZ population, thirteen QTLs were detected, among which eight were not reported before. One QTL for pod width was repeatedly mapped between the two populations.
The QTL analyses for pod length and width and seed length and width were conducted in this study using two mapping populations. Novel QTLs were identified, which included two for pod length, four for pod width, five for seed length and one for seed width in the FI population, and three for pod length, three for pod width and two for seed width in the XZ population. Our results will be helpful for improving pod- and seed-related traits in peanuts through marker-assisted selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant bZIP proteins characteristically harbor a highly conserved bZIP domain with two structural features: a DNA-binding basic region and a leucine (Leu) zipper dimerization region. They have been shown to be diverse transcriptional regulators, playing crucial roles in plant development, physiological processes, and biotic/abiotic stress responses. Despite the availability of six completely sequenced legume genomes, a comprehensive investigation of bZIP family members in legumes has yet to be presented.
In this study, we identified 428 bZIP genes encoding 585 distinct proteins in six legumes, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Cajanus cajan, and Lotus japonicus. The legume bZIP genes were categorized into 11 groups according to their phylogenetic relationships with genes from Arabidopsis. Four kinds of intron patterns (a–d) within the basic and hinge regions were defined and additional conserved motifs were identified, both presenting high group specificity and supporting the group classification. We predicted the DNA-binding patterns and the dimerization properties, based on the characteristic features in the basic and hinge regions and the Leu zipper, respectively, which indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues existed across each major group. The chromosome distribution and analysis for WGD-derived duplicated blocks revealed that the legume bZIP genes have expanded mainly by segmental duplication rather than tandem duplication. Expression data further revealed that the legume bZIP genes were expressed constitutively or in an organ-specific, development-dependent manner playing roles in multiple seed developmental stages and tissues. We also detected several key legume bZIP genes involved in drought- and salt-responses by comparing fold changes of expression values in drought-stressed or salt-stressed roots and leaves.
In summary, this genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of legume bZIP genes provides valuable information for understanding the molecular functions and evolution of the legume bZIP transcription factor family, and highlights potential legume bZIP genes involved in regulating tissue development and abiotic stress responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key message
SSR-based QTL mapping provides useful information for map-based cloning of major QTLs and can be used to improve the agronomic and quality traits in cultivated peanut by marker-assisted selection.
Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 4× = 40), valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. Linkage mapping has been successfully conducted for most crops, and it has been applied to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of biotic and abiotic traits in peanut. However, the genetic basis of agronomic and quality-related traits remains unclear. In this study, high levels of phenotypic variation, broad-sense heritability and significant correlations were observed for agronomic and quality-related traits in an F
2:3 population. A genetic linkage map was constructed for cultivated peanut containing 470 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, with a total length of 1877.3 cM and average distance of 4.0 cM between flanking markers. For 10 agronomic traits, 24 QTLs were identified and each QTL explained 1.69–18.70 % of the phenotypic variance. For 8 quality-related traits, 12 QTLs were identified that explained 1.72–20.20 % of the phenotypic variance. Several QTLs for multiple traits were overlapped, reflecting the phenotypic correlation between these traits. The majority of QTLs exhibited obvious dominance or over-dominance effects on agronomic and quality traits, highlighting the importance of heterosis for breeding. A comparative analysis revealed genomic duplication and arrangement of peanut genome, which aids the assembly of scaffolds in genomic sequencing of Arachis
hypogaea. Our QTL analysis results enabled us to clearly understand the genetic base of agronomic and quality traits in cultivated peanut, further accelerating the progress of map-based cloning of major QTLs and marker-assisted selection in future breeding.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious soil-borne disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L). The molecular basis of peanut response to R. solanacearum remains unknown. To understand the resistance mechanism behind peanut resistance to R. solanacearum, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on the roots of peanut resistant (R) and susceptible (S) genotypes under R. solanacearum infection.
A total of 4.95 x 108 raw sequence reads were generated and subsequently assembled into 271, 790 unigenes with an average length of 890 bp and a N50 of 1, 665 bp. 179, 641 unigenes could be annotated by public protein databases. The pairwise transcriptome comparsions of time course (6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation) were conducted 1) between inoculated and control samples of each genotype, 2) between inoculated samples of R and S genotypes. The linear dynamics of transcriptome profile was observed between adjacent samples for each genotype, two genotypes shared similar transcriptome pattern at early time points with most significant up regulation at 12 hour, and samples from R genotype at 24 h and S genotype at 48 h showed similar transcriptome pattern, significant differences of transcriptional profile were observed in pairwise comparisons between R and S genotypes. KEGG analysis showed that the primary metabolisms were inhibited in both genotypes and stronger inhibition in R genotype post inoculation. The defense related genes (R gene, LRR-RLK, cell wall genes, etc.) generally showed a genotype-specific down regulation and different expression between both genotypes.
This transcriptome profiling provided the largest data set that explores the dynamic in crosstalk between peanut and R. solanacearum. The results suggested that the down-regulation of primary metabolism is contributed to the resistance difference between R and S genotypes. The genotype-specific expression pattern of defense related DEGs also contributed to the resistance difference between R and S genotype. This study will strongly contribute to better understand the molecular interaction between plant and R. solanacearum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) play an important role in regulating gene expression in plant development and response to stresses. In peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), which produce flowers aerially and pods underground, only a few ERF genes have been identified so far. This study identifies 63 ERF unigenes from 247,313 peanut EST sequences available in the NCBI database. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in the peanut ERF proteins were analysed. Comparative analysis revealed the absence of two subgroups (A1 and A3) of the ERF family in peanuts; only 10 subgroups were identified in peanuts compared to 12 subgroups in Arabidopsis and soybeans. AP2/ERF domains were found to be conserved among peanuts, Arabidopsis, and soybeans. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many soybean-specific conserved motifs were also detected in peanuts. The expression analysis of ERF family genes representing each clade revealed differential expression patterns in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Overexpression of AhERF008 influenced the root gravity of Arabidopsis, whereas overexpression of AhERF019 enhanced tolerance to drought, heat, and salt stresses in Arabidopsis. The information generated in this study will be helpful to further investigate the function of ERFs in plant development and stress response.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Functional and Integrative Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cultivated peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). In recent years, many efforts have been made to construct linkage maps in cultivated peanut, but almost all of these maps were constructed using low-throughput molecular markers, and most show a low density, directly influencing the value of their applications. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, the construction of high-density genetic maps has become more achievable in a cost-effective and rapid manner. The objective of this study was to establish a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map for cultivated peanut by analyzing next-generation double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) reads.
We constructed reduced representation libraries (RRLs) for two A. hypogaea lines and 166 of their recombinant inbred line (RIL) progenies using the ddRADseq technique. Approximately 175 gigabases of data containing 952,679,665 paired-end reads were obtained following Solexa sequencing. Mining this dataset, 53,257 SNPs were detected between the parents, of which 14,663 SNPs were also detected in the population, and 1,765 of the obtained polymorphic markers met the requirements for use in the construction of a genetic map. Among 50 randomly selected in silico SNPs, 47 were able to be successfully validated. One linkage map was constructed, which was comprised of 1,685 marker loci, including 1,621 SNPs and 64 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The map displayed a distribution of the markers into 20 linkage groups (LGs A01–A10 and B01–B10), spanning a distance of 1,446.7 cM. The alignment of the LGs from this map was shown in comparison with a previously integrated consensus map from peanut.
This study showed that the ddRAD library combined with NGS allowed the rapid discovery of a large number of SNPs in the cultivated peanut. The first high density SNP-based linkage map for A. hypogaea was generated that can serve as a reference map for cultivated Arachis species and will be useful in genetic mapping. Our results contribute to the available molecular marker resources and to the assembly of a reference genome sequence for the peanut.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-351) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei's genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular basis of phenotypic variations in plants. A peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection in China comprising 298 accessions was genotyped using 109 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers which identified 554 SSR alleles and phenotyped for 15 agronomic traits in three different environments, exhibiting abundant genetic and phenotypic diversity within the panel. A model-based structure analysis assigned all accessions to three groups. Most of accessions had the relative kinship of less than 0.05, indicating that there was no or weak relationships between accessions of the mini-core collection. For 15 agronomic traits in the peanut panel, generally the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives compared to the Q model and the GLM-simple model. In total, 89 SSR alleles were identified to be associated with 15 agronomic traits of three environments by the Q + K model based association analysis. Of these, 8 alleles were repeatedly detected in two or three environments, and 15 alleles were commonly detected to be associated with multiple agronomic traits. SSR allelic effects confirmed significant differences between different genotypes of these repeatedly detected markers. Our results demonstrate the great potential of integrating the association analysis and marker-assisted breeding by utilizing the peanut mini-core collection.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to utilize germplasm resources more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions were developed previously from a collection of 6839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences at Wuhan. For an efficient evaluation and characterization of the most useful agronomic and disease-resistant traits, an even smaller collection of peanut accessions that represent a spectrum of phenotypes could be more desirable. For this reason, a mini-mini core collection with 99 accessions from the core accessions was developed based on the analysis of 21 morphological traits. It was demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the core and mini-mini core collections in 20 out of the 21 morphological traits studied. Further, the mini-mini core collection captured the ranges of all of the 21 traits displayed in the core collection. The newly developed mini-mini core collection was assessed for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Two accessions showing a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt were identified, demonstrating the usefulness of the mini-mini core collection. The mini-mini-core collection provides a more efficient means of germplasm evaluation and will be resequenced as part of the International Peanut Genome Consortium sequencing project at the UC-Davis Genome Center.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great potential to increase the oil content in A. hypogaea by using the wild Arachis germplasm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although an important oil crop, peanut has only 162,030 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) publicly available, 86,943 of which are from cultivated plants. More ESTs from cultivated peanuts are needed for isolation of stress-resistant, tissue-specific and developmentally important genes. Here, we generated 63,234 ESTs from our 5 constructed peanut cDNA libraries of Ralstonia solanacearum challenged roots, R. solanacearum challenged leaves, and unchallenged cultured peanut roots, leaves and developing seeds. Among these ESTs, there were 14,547 unique sequences with 7,961 tentative consensus sequences and 6,586 singletons. Putative functions for 47.8 % of the sequences were identified, including transcription factors, tissue-specific genes, genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and oil formation regulation, and resistance gene analogue genes. Additionally, differentially expressed genes, including those involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signal transduction pathways, from both peanut leaves and roots, were identified in R. solanacearum challenged samples. This large expression dataset from different peanut tissues will be a valuable source for marker development and gene expression analysis. It will also be helpful for finding candidate genes for fatty acid synthesis and oil formation regulation as well as for studying mechanisms of interactions between the peanut host and R. solanacearum pathogen.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Plant Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arachis genus is native to South America, and contains 70–80 described species assembled into nine sections. A better understanding of the level of speciation and taxonomic relationships is a prerequisite to the effective use of Arachis species in peanut breeding programs. Forty-eight genotypes representing 19 species in 6 sections were evaluated to assay the genetic variability within and among species, and 10 recombinant lines and those parents were identified with introgression of Arachis species chromosome segments into A.
hypogaea genome using SRAP markers. Sixty of sixty-four SRAP primers tested were selected for DNA amplification reactions. A dendrogram and principal component analysis were constructed based on 353 SRAP polymorphic bands of the accessions. The number of scored polymorphic bands per each primer combination varied from 1 to 25 with an average of 5.9 per reaction. Estimates of genetic distance among the 48 accessions Arachis species ranged from 0.11 to 0.76. A-genome accessions 475845 (A. duranensis), and 331197 (A. villosa) were most closely associated to A.
hypogaea. The first two PCAs accounted for 77.74% (62.02 and 15.72%) of the total variation observed and separated the different genomic groups. SRAPs also identified introgression of Arachis species chromosome segments into A.
hypogaea. genome with 10 recombinant lines and those parents. The present results indicated that SRAPs can be used to determine the genetic relationships among species of the different sections of the genus Arachis and to identify introgression of Arachis genus chromosome segments into A.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is an important constraint to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in several Asian and African countries, and planting BW-resistant cultivars is the most feasible method for controlling the disease. Although several BW-resistant peanut germplasm accessions have been identified, the genetic diversity among these has not been properly investigated, which has impeded efficient utilization. In this study, the genetic relationships of 31 peanut genotypes with various levels of resistance to BW were assessed based on SSR and AFLP analyses. Twenty-nine of 78 SSR primers and 32 of 126 AFLP primer combinations employed in this study were polymorphic amongst the peanut genotypes tested. The SSR primers amplified 91 polymorphic loci in total with an average of 3.14 alleles per primer, and the AFLP primers amplified 72 polymorphic loci in total with an average of 2.25 alleles per primer. Four SSR primers (14H06, 7G02, 3A8, 16C6) and one AFLP primer (P1M62) were found to be most efficient in detecting diversity. The genetic distance between pairs of genotypes ranged from 0.12 to 0.94 with an average of 0.53 in the SSR data and from 0.06 to 0.57 with an average of 0.25 in the AFLP data. The SSR-based estimates of the genetic distance were generally larger than that based on the AFLP data. The genotypes belonging to subsp. fastigiata possessed wider diversity than that of subsp. hypogaea. The clustering of genotypes based on the SSR and AFLP data were similar but the SSR clustering was more consistent with morphological classification of A. hypogaea. Optimum diverse genotypes of both subsp. hypogaea and subsp. fastigiata can be recommended based on this analysis for developing mapping populations and breeding for high yielding and resistant cultivars.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Genetics and Genomics