Jonas Hugosson

Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden

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Publications (231)1508.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies indicate that a cancer patient's partner is important in regard to the patient's psychological well-being. This has yet to be investigated in a large prospective setting.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age and number of screens on the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Materials and methods: The Göteborg randomized population-based PCa screening trial has, since 1995, invited men biennially for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-testing, until the upper age limit 70 years. Men with a PSA-level above the threshold ≥2.5 ng/ml were recommended further work-up including 10-core biopsy (sextant before 2009). The present study comprises 9,065 men born 1930-43 (1944 excluded due to different screening algorithm). Complete attendees were defined as men who accepted all screening invitations (maximum 3-9 invitations). Cumulative incidence of PCa was calculated using standard methods. Results: Of the 3,488 (38%) complete attendees, 667 were diagnosed with PCa (follow-up 1995-30 Jun 2014). At the age 70, there was no significant difference in PCa risk between those who started screening at the age of 52 (9 screens), 55 (7 screens) or 60 (5 screens) years. However, the cumulative risk of PCa diagnosis increased dramatically with age and was 7.9% at age 60, 15% at age 65 and 21% at age 70, for men who had been screened ≥4 times. Conclusion: There was no clear association between risk of PCa and the number of screens. Starting screening at an early age appears to advance the time of PCa diagnosis but does not seem to increase the risk of being diagnosed with the disease. Age at termination of screening is strongly associated with the risk of being diagnosed with PCa.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and targeted biopsies (TB) have shown potential to more accurately detect significant prostate cancer compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and systematic biopsies (SB). Objective: To compare sequential screening (PSA+MRI) with conventional PSA screening. Design, setting, and participants: Of 384 attendees in the 10th screening round of the Göteborg randomised screening trial, 124 men, median age 69.5 yr, had a PSA of ≥ 1.8 ng/ml and underwent a prebiopsy MRI. Men with suspicious lesions on MRI and/or PSA ≥ 3.0ng/ml were referred for biopsy. SB was performed blinded to MRI results and TB was performed in men with tumour-suspicious findings on MRI. Three screening strategies were compared (PSA ≥ 3.0+SB; PSA ≥ 3.0+MRI+TB and PSA ≥ 1.8+MRI+TB). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Cancer detection rates, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated per screening strategy and compared using McNemar's test. Results and limitations: In total, 28 cases of prostate cancer were detected, of which 20 were diagnosed in biopsy-naïve men. Both PSA ≥ 3.0+MRI and PSA ≥ 1.8+MRI significantly increased specificity compared with PSA ≥ 3.0+SB (0.92 and 0.79 vs 0.52; p<0.002 for both), while sensitivity was significantly higher for PSA ≥ 1.8+MRI compared with PSA ≥ 3.0+MRI (0.73 vs 0.46, p=0.008). The detection rate of significant cancer was higher with PSA ≥ 1.8+MRI compared with PSA ≥ 3.0+SB (5.9% vs 4.0%), while the detection rate of insignificant cancer was lowered by PSA ≥ 3.0+MRI (0.3% vs 1.2%). The primary limitation of this study is the small sample of men. Conclusion: A screening strategy with a lowered PSA cut-off followed by TB in MRI-positive men seems to increase the detection of significant cancers while improving specificity. If replicated, these results may contribute to a paradigm shift in future screening. Patient summary: Major concerns in prostate-specific antigen screening are overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. We evaluated whether prostate magnetic resonance imaging could improve the balance of benefits to harm in prostate cancer screening screening, and we found a promising potential of using magnetic resonance imaging in addition to prostate-specific antigen.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Urology
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: The balance of benefits and harms in prostate cancer screening has not been sufficiently characterized. We related indicators of mortality reduction and overdetection by center within the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer Screening. We analyzed the absolute mortality reduction expressed as number needed to invite (NNI=1/absolute risk reduction; indicating how many men had to be randomized to screening arm to avert a prostate cancer death) for screening and the absolute excess of prostate cancer detection as number needed for overdetection (NNO=1/absolute excess incidence; indicating the number of men invited per additional prostate cancer case), and compared their relationship across the seven ERSPC centers. Both absolute mortality reduction (NNI) and absolute overdetection (NNO) varied widely between the centers: NNI 200-7000 and NNO 16-69. Extent of overdiagnosis and mortality reduction were closely associated (correlation coefficient r=0.76, weighted linear regression coefficient β=33, 95% 5-62, R2=0.72). For an averted prostate cancer death at 13 years of follow-up, 12-36 excess cases had to be detected in various centers. The differences between the ERSPC centers likely reflect variations in prostate cancer incidence and mortality, as well as in screening protocol and performance. The strong interrelation between the benefits and harms suggests that efforts to maximize the mortality effect are bound to increase overdiagnosis, and might be improved by focusing on high-risk populations. The optimal balance between screening intensity and risk of overdiagnosis remains unclear. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: To study whether probabilistic selection by the use of a nomogram could improve patient selection for active surveillance (AS) compared to the various sets of rule-based AS inclusion criteria currently used. We studied Dutch and Swedish patients participating in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). We explored which men who were initially diagnosed with cT1-2, Gleason 6 (Gleason pattern ≤3 + 3) had histopathological indolent PCa at RP [defined as pT2, Gleason pattern ≤3 and tumour volume (TV) ≤0.5 or TV ≤ 1.3 ml, and TV no part of criteria (NoTV)]. Rule-based selection was according to the Prostate cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS), Klotz, and Johns Hopkins criteria. An existing nomogram to define probability-based selection for AS was refitted for the TV1.3 and NoTV indolent PCa definitions. 619 of 864 men undergoing RP had cT1-2, Gleason 6 disease at diagnosis and were analysed. Median follow-up was 8.9 years. 229 (37 %), 356 (58 %), and 410 (66 %) fulfilled the TV0.5, TV1.3, and NoTV indolent PCa criteria at RP. Discriminating between indolent and significant disease according to area under the curve (AUC) was: TV0.5: 0.658 (PRIAS), 0.523 (Klotz), 0.642 (Hopkins), 0.685 (nomogram). TV1.3: 0.630 (PRIAS), 0.550 (Klotz), 0.615 (Hopkins), 0.646 (nomogram). NoTV: 0.603 (PRIAS), 0.530 (Klotz), 0.589 (Hopkins), 0.608 (nomogram). The performance of a nomogram, the Johns Hopkins, and PRIAS rule-based criteria are comparable. Because the nomogram allows individual trade-offs, it could be a good alternative to rigid rule-based criteria.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · World Journal of Urology
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Lancet
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of Urology
  • R. Godtman · E. Holmberg · A. Khatami · J. Stranne · J. Hugosson

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer (PCa) mortality and a 1.6-fold increase in PCa incidence with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening (at 13 yr of follow-up). We evaluated PCa incidence by risk category at diagnosis across the study arms to assess the potential impact on PCa mortality. Information on arm, centre, T and M stage, Gleason score, serum PSA at diagnosis, age at randomisation, follow-up time, and vital status were extracted from the ERSPC database. Four risk categories at diagnosis were defined: 1, low; 2, intermediate; 3, high; 4, metastatic disease. PSA (≤100 or >100 ng/ml) was used as the indicator of metastasis. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for screening versus control arm by risk category at diagnosis and follow-up time were calculated using Poisson regression analysis for seven centres. Follow-up was truncated at 13 yr. Missing data were imputed using chained equations. The analyses were carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. In the screening arm, 7408 PCa cases were diagnosed and 6107 in the control arm. The proportion of missing stage, Gleason score, or PSA value was comparable in the two arms (8% vs 10%), but differed among centres. The IRRs were elevated in the screening arm for the low-risk (IRR: 2.14; 95% CI, 2.03-2.25) and intermediate-risk (IRR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.16-1.34) categories at diagnosis, equal to unity for the high-risk category at diagnosis (IRR: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89-1.13), and reduced for metastatic disease at diagnosis (IRR: 0.60; 95% CI, 0.52-0.70). The IRR of metastatic disease had temporal pattern similar to mortality, shifted forwards an average of almost 3 yr, although the mortality reduction was smaller. The results confirm a reduction in metastatic disease at diagnosis in the screening arm, preceding mortality reduction by almost 3 yr. The findings of this study indicate that the decrease in metastatic disease at diagnosis is the major determinant of the prostate cancer mortality reduction in the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) has become widely used without high-grade evidence of superiority regarding long-term clinical outcomes compared with open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), the gold standard. To compare patient-reported urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction 12 mo after RALP or RRP. This was a prospective, controlled, nonrandomised trial of patients undergoing prostatectomy in 14 centres using RALP or RRP. Clinical-record forms and validated patient questionnaires at baseline and 12 mo after surgery were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with logistic regression and adjusted for possible confounders. The primary end point was urinary incontinence (change of pad less than once in 24h vs one time or more per 24h) at 12 mo. Secondary end points were erectile dysfunction at 12 mo and positive surgical margins. Of 2625 eligible men, 2431 (93%) could be evaluated for the primary end point. At 12 mo after RALP, 366 men (21.3%) were incontinent, as were 144 (20.2%) after RRP. The adjusted OR was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.34). Erectile dysfunction was observed in 1200 men (70.4%) 12 mo after RALP and 531 (74.7%) after RRP. The adjusted OR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.98). The frequency of positive surgical margins did not differ significantly between groups: 21.8% in the RALP group and 20.9% in the RRP group (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI, 0.87-1.35). The nonrandomised design is a limitation. In a Swedish setting, RALP for prostate cancer was modestly beneficial in preserving erectile function compared with RRP, without a statistically significant difference regarding urinary incontinence or surgical margins. We compared patient-reported urinary incontinence after prostatectomy with two types of surgical technique. There was no statistically significant improvement in the rate of urinary leakage, but there was a small improvement regarding erectile function after robot-assisted operation. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · European Urology
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    Anna Grenabo Bergdahl · Erik Holmberg · Sue Moss · Jonas Hugosson

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: The results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial showed a statistically significant 29% prostate cancer mortality reduction for the men screened in the intervention arm and a 23% negative impact on the life-years gained because of quality of life. However, alternative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening strategies for the population may exist, optimizing the effects on mortality reduction, quality of life, overdiagnosis, and costs. Based on data of the ERSPC trial, we predicted the numbers of prostate cancers diagnosed, prostate cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, and cost-effectiveness of 68 screening strategies starting at age 55 years, with a PSA threshold of 3, using microsimulation modeling. The screening strategies varied by age to stop screening and screening interval (one to 14 years or once in a lifetime screens), and therefore number of tests. Screening at short intervals of three years or less was more cost-effective than using longer intervals. Screening at ages 55 to 59 years with two-year intervals had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $73000 per QALY gained and was considered optimal. With this strategy, lifetime prostate cancer mortality reduction was predicted as 13%, and 33% of the screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. When better quality of life for the post-treatment period could be achieved, an older age of 65 to 72 years for ending screening was obtained. Prostate cancer screening can be cost-effective when it is limited to two or three screens between ages 55 to 59 years. Screening above age 63 years is less cost-effective because of loss of QALYs because of overdiagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Lakartidningen
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that organized screening decreases prostate cancer (PC) mortality, but the effect of opportunistic screening is largely unknown. To compare the ability to reduce PC mortality and the risk of overdiagnosis between organized and opportunistic screening. The Göteborg screening study invited 10 000 randomly selected men for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing every 2 yr since 1995, with a prostate biopsy recommended for men with PSA ≥2.5 ng/ml. The control group of 10 000 men not invited has been exposed to a previously reported increased rate of opportunistic PSA testing. Both groups were followed until December 31, 2012. Observed cumulative PC incidence and mortality rates in both groups were calculated using the actuarial method. Using historical data from 1990-1994 (pre-PSA era), we calculated expected PC incidence and mortality rates in the absence of any PSA testing. The number needed to invite (NNI) and the number needed to diagnose (NND) were calculated by comparing the expected versus observed incidence and mortality rates. At 18 yr, 1396 men were diagnosed with PC and 79 men died of PC in the screening group, compared to 962 and 122, respectively, in the control group. In the screening group, the observed cumulative PC incidence/mortality was 16%/0.98% compared to expected values of 6.8%/1.7%. The corresponding values for the control group were 11%/1.5% and 6.9%/1.7%. Organized screening was associated with an absolute PC-specific mortality reduction of 0.72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.94%) and relative risk reduction of 42% (95% CI 28-54%). There was an absolute reduction in PC deaths of 0.20% (95% CI -0.06% to 0.47%) and a relative risk reduction of 12% (95% CI -5 to 26%) associated with opportunistic PSA testing. NNI and NND were 139 (95% CI 107-200) and 13 for organized biennial screening and 493 (95% CI 213- -1563) and 23 for opportunistic screening. The extent of opportunistic screening could not be measured; incidence trends were used as a proxy. Organized screening reduces PC mortality but is associated with overdiagnosis. Opportunistic PSA testing had little if any effect on PC mortality and resulted in more overdiagnosis, with almost twice the number of men needed to be diagnosed to save one man from dying from PC compared to men offered an organized biennial screening program. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening within the framework of an organized program seems more effective than unorganized screening. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · European Urology
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: There is great interest in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. To systematically review evidence regarding the use of MRI in men with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer suitable for active surveillance. Ovid Medline and Embase databases were searched for active surveillance, prostate cancer, and MRI from inception until April 25, 2014 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses process. Identified reports were critically appraised according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria. A lesion on MRI suspicious for prostate cancer (positive MRI) is seen in two-thirds of men otherwise suitable for active surveillance. A positive MRI makes the identification of clinically significant disease at repeat biopsy more likely, especially when biopsies are targeted to suspicious MRI lesions. Radical prostatectomy data show that positive MRI is more likely to be associated with upgrading (Gleason score >3+3) than a negative MRI (43% vs 27%). A positive MRI is not significantly more likely to be associated with upstaging at radical prostatectomy (>T2) than a negative MRI (10% vs 8%). Although MRI is of interest in the monitoring of men on active surveillance, robust data on the use of repeat MRI in active surveillance are lacking. Prospective studies with clear definitions of radiological significance and progression are needed before this approach can be adopted. MRI is useful for detection of clinically significant disease at initial assessment of men considering active surveillance. To use MRI as a monitoring tool in surveillance, it will be necessary to define both radiological significance and radiological progression. This review assesses evidence for the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. MRI at the start of surveillance can detect clinically significant disease in one-third to half of men. There are few data to assess the use of MRI as a monitoring tool during surveillance, so there is a need to define significant disease on MRI and significant changes over time. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Effects on long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated in patients treated for localized prostate cancer by two standard modalities: radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy combined with a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost (HDRBT-EBRT). The HRQoL data were compared with age-adjusted normative data. Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and treated with curative intent in Gothenburg, Sweden, 1988-1997 were included. HRQoL was measured in October 2000 using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-PR25 questionnaires, with a response rate of 82% (n=347). No differences in patient characteristics were found between the two treatment groups, except regarding tumor stage and PSA recurrence at the time of the questionnaires. In the RP group, 42% had T1 and 6% had T3-4 tumors; corresponding proportions in the HDRBT-EBRT group were 29% and 13% (p=0.01). PSA recurrence was detected in 44% of RP patients and 9% of HDRBT-EBRT patients. In most domains, mean HRQoL scores were high and similar to the scores for the age-adjusted normative sample. However, patients reported better role and physical function compared to the normal population. We also observed more sleeping disturbances but less pain among patients than in the normal population. The disease-specific questionnaires showed statistically significant higher levels of bowel and urinary problems in the irradiated group than in the RP group, and the absolute difference between the groups was small and had minor clinical significance. We conclude that overall the general quality of life was rated high by the patients irrespective of curative treatment modality and in agreement with age-adjusted normative data. Statistically significant differences in bowel and urinary symptoms were found between the two treatment groups in favor of the RP group, but the clinical significance was small.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Oncology

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,508.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1993-2015
    • University of Gothenburg
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Institute of Clinical Sciences
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2004-2014
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Akademiska Sjukhuset
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2001
    • University of Turku
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 2000
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1996-2000
    • Länssjukhuset Ryhov
      Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden