[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus (H5N1) infection in humans causes acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to multiple organ failure. Five fatal cases of H5N1 infection in Vietnam were analyzed pathologically to reveal virus distribution, and local proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues. Our main histopathological findings showed diffuse alveolar damage in the lungs. The infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive and/or CD68 (clone KP-1)-positive neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages was remarkable in the alveolar septa and alveolar spaces. Immunohistochemistry revealed that H5N1 mainly infected alveolar epithelial cells and monocytes/macrophages in lungs. H5N1 replication was confirmed by detecting H5N1 mRNA in epithelial cells using in situ hybridization. Quantitation of H5N1 RNA using quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays revealed that the level of H5N1 RNA was increased in cases during early phases of the disease. We quantified the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (commonly known as RANTES), and interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections. Their expression levels correlated with H5N1 RNA copy numbers detected in the same lung region. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 were expressed in epithelial cells and/or monocytes/macrophages. In particular, IL-6 was also expressed in endothelial cells. The dissemination of H5N1 beyond respiratory organs was not confirmed in two cases examined in this study.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 23 November 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.193.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Necropsied lung tissues of three fatal cases with avian influenza A virus (H5N1) infection in Vietnam were analyzed to detect H5N1 virus-infected cells. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections showed typical histological features of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in all cases. Immunohistochemistry for the influenza A virus nucleoprotein antigen revealed positive signals of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells in only one patient, who exhibited DAD with an exudative phase and died on the 6th day after onset. However, no signal was detected in the other two cases of DAD with a proliferative phase. These patients died on day 16 and day 17 after onset, respectively. H5N1 virus antigens were detected predominantly in epithelial cells in terminal bronchioles and in alveoli, i.e., type I and type II alveolar pneumocytes, and in alveolar macrophages. The pathogenesis of exudative DAD caused by H5N1 infection is discussed.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Japanese journal of infectious diseases