[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemetrexed, a chemotherapeutic drug, is highly active in non-small cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Unfortunately, rashes are more commonly associated with pemetrexed than other chemotherapies, and it is recommended that patients receive corticosteroids (8 mg/d of dexamethasone) for 3 d, including the day of pemetrexed administration (day 1). However, the efficacy of corticosteroids in this context has not been fully verified. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of 78 patients who received pemetrexed between April 2009 and March 2014, to confirm whether supplementary corticosteroids prevented rash development. The incidence of rash was lower in the 47 patients who received supplementary corticosteroids (after day 1) compared with the incidence among the 31 patients who did not receive supplementary corticosteroids (19.1% vs. 38.7%). The average cutoff dosage of supplementary corticosteroids on day 2 and day 3 was 1.5 mg/d of dexamethasone, as calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the odds ratio was 0.33 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.94). Administration of ≥1.5 mg of corticosteroids on day 2 and day 3 significantly reduced the severity of the rash compared to no supplementary treatment (grades 2/3, 13.3% vs. 33.3%, p<0.05). However, increasing the dose of corticosteroids had no additional effect on rash development. These results suggest that ≥1.5 mg of supplementary dexamethasone on day 2 and day 3 (in addition to day 1) may be necessary for preventing pemetrexed-induced rash, but high doses of dexamethasone (e.g., 8 mg/d) are unnecessary. Coopyright
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimVinorelbine is an anticancer drug associated with vascular injury. The mechanism of vascular injury is associated with the decrease of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which regulates oxidative stress. Kakkonto, a traditional Japanese medicine, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. We evaluated the effect of kakkonto on vinorelbine-induced vascular injury and its mechanism of action.Methods
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used as the endothelial model. We compared vinorelbine-induced cytotoxicity after pre-incubation with the seven kakkonto components using ATP assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit. Intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with a calcium-sensitive dye, Fluo-4 AM. eNOS and Akt phosphorylation after ephedra extract or vinorelbine treatment were investigated on western blot.ResultsEphedra, a kakkonto component, protected cells against vinorelbine-induced cytotoxicity. Ephedra extract preserved eNOS phosphorylation by increasing [Ca2+]i, but it had no effect on Akt phosphorylation. The increase in [Ca2+]i was mediated by Ca2+ influx via l-type calcium channels. Additionally, inhibition of Ca2+ influx or eNOS phosphorylation abolished the effects of ephedra extract.Conclusion
Ephedra extract preserved eNOS phosphorylation following vinorelbine-induced oxidative stress, thereby protecting cells from vinorelbine-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, the protective effect of ephedra extract is dependent on the increase of [Ca2+]i and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent signal transduction pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Recently, much evidence has suggested that bevacizumab-induced hypertension might be predictive of the effect of bevacizumab. The aim of our study is to retrospectively assess the relationship between the onset of hypertension and the activity of bevacizumab in Japanese metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Between July 2007 and December 2010, 36 patients (median age 66 years; 36-81 years) with metastatic colorectal cancer were assigned to receive bevacizumab in combination with either mFOLFOX6 (5-FU, levofolinate and oxaliplatin) or FOLFIRI (5-FU, levofolinate and irinotecan) at the Tokushima University Hospital. A patient who had increase by >20 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure or had increase to >150/100 mmHg or received antihypertensive treatment was defined as hypertensive. The objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between the hypertensive group (n=10) and non-hypertensive group (n=26). ORR and DCR were 60.0% and 100%, respectively, in the hypertensive group and ORR and DCR were 23.1% and 80.8%, respectively, in the non-hypertensive group. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The median PFS tended to be longer in the hypertensive group (65.0 weeks) than in the non-hypertensive group (40.0 weeks). Our data suggested that bevacizumab-induced hypertension may be predictive of the effect of bevacizumab in Japanese metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of a time-varying magnetic field on cell volume regulation by hyposmotic stress in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells were examined. Through regulatory volume decrease (RVD), cell volume of chromaffin cells that were incubated in a hypotonic medium initially increased, reached a peak and finally recovered to the initial value. Two hour exposure to a magnetic field and addition of cytochalasin D increased peak value and delayed return to initial value. Intracellular F-actin contents initially decreased but returned to normal levels after 10 sec. Two hour exposure to the magnetic field and addition of cytochalasin D continuously reduced the F-actin content. Results suggest that exposure to the magnetic field stimulated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and that the disruption delayed the recovery to the volume prior to osmotic stress.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that exposure to electromagnetic fields influences intracellular signal transduction. We studied the effects of exposure to a time-varying 1.5 T magnetic field on membrane properties, membrane cation transport and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in relation to signals. We also studied the mechanism of the effect of exposure to the magnetic field on intracellular Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores in adrenal chromaffin cells.
We measured the physiological functions of ER, actin protein, and mitochondria with respect to a neurotransmitter-induced increase in Ca(2+) in chromaffin cells exposed to the time-varying 1.5 T magnetic field for 2h.
Exposure to the magnetic field significantly reduced the increase in [Ca(2+)]i. The exposure depolarized the mitochondria membrane and lowered oxygen uptake, but did not reduce the intracellular ATP content. Magnetic field-exposure caused a morphological change in intracellular F-actin. F-actin in exposed cells seemed to be less dense than in control cells, but the decrease was smaller than that in cytochalasin D-treated cells. The increase in G-actin (i.e., the decrease in F-actin) due to exposure was recovered by jasplakinolide, but inhibition of Ca(2+) release by the exposure was unaffected.
These results suggest that the magnetic field-exposure influenced both the ER and mitochondria, but the inhibition of Ca(2+) release from ER was not due to mitochondria inhibition. The effect of eddy currents induced in the culture medium may indirectly influence intracellular actin and suppress the transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel product, 4-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid 15-[(4-aminobutyl)-3-aminopropylcarbamoyl] pentadecyl ester (Arg-HSA-Spm), was synthesized based on ptilomycalin A, which is one of the extracts from marine sponge. Arg-HSA-Spm contains arginine in its chemical structure. The pharmacological action of Arg-HSA-Spm on catecholamine secretion from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was examined. Arg-HSA-Spm inhibited catecholamine secretion stimulated by the physiological secretagog acetylcholine. This inhibitory action of Arg-HSA-Spm on catecholamine secretion induced by 10(-4) M acetylcholine was dose-dependent from 10(-8) M to 10(-5) M. In the presence of 3 x 10(-7) M Arg-HSA-Spm, the stimulation of catecholamine secretion observed by increasing acetylcholine up to 10(-3) M did not reach the maximal level observed without Arg-HSA-Spm. Arg-HSA-Spm at 10(-5) M suppressed both the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ level and the influx of 45Ca2+ induced by 10(-4) M acetylcholine. The Arg-HSA-Spm-induced suppression of intracellular free Ca2+ level, the influx of 45Ca2+ and catecholamine secretion were not observed in the presence of extracellular K+ at 56 mM. The results presented in this study suggested that Arg-HSA-Spm may inhibit the influx of extracellular Ca2+ into the cells, probably through its blocking action related to acetylcholine receptors, resulting in the inhibition of catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology