[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jehovah's Witnesses who require cardiac surgery represent a challenge to the physician because of their refusal to accept blood transfusions. Because coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed by most surgeons under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which has potentially deleterious effects on hemostasis, we used a new concept called minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC). MECC includes heparin-coated tubing, a centrifugal pump, and an oxygenator. There is no venous reservoir or vent, and suction is used through the cell saver. We assessed the hypothesis that MECC in combination with low-volume blood cardioplegia preserves more hemoglobin than conventional CPB in standard CABG.
In 40 patients of the Jehovah's Witnesses faith undergoing CABG with the use of MECC and intermittent warm blood cardioplegia, clinical and biological data as well as values for parameters of hemolysis (plasma hemoglobin) and myocardial damage (troponin T) were determined. The results were compared with those of a control group of 40 patients who underwent operations with standard CPB.
Demographics, hemodynamics, the number of anastomoses, and CPB and cross-clamp times were comparable between the groups. MECC patients demonstrated significantly lower peak levels of plasma hemoglobin (21.8 +/- 114 mg/dL versus 35.4 +/- 15 mg/dL) and troponin T (0.12 +/- 0.4 ng/mL versus 0.65 +/- 0.7 ng/mL), a higher minimum hematocrit level during CPB (30% +/- 7% versus 23% +/- 6%), and a higher hemoglobin level 2 days after surgery (13 +/- 3 g/100 mL versus 9.4 +/- 0.98 g/100 mL). Preoperative values were not significantly different.
The use of MECC instead of conventional CPB reduces hemolysis, hemodilution, blood loss, and myocardial damage.
Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Heart Surgery Forum
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The grafts commonly used in coronary bypass surgery are the left internal mammary artery and the saphenous veins of the legs: the use of both internal mammary arteries, with potential long-term benefits, is only justified if the operative risk is not increased. Since 1987, the authors use both internal mammary arteries systematically in patients under 70 years of age and in good general condition. The retrospective analysis of 560 patients having undergone this surgery from 1987 to 1994 was undertaken to determine if this surgical option is justified without increased operative risk. The dissection of the mammary arteries is performed in a special manner by skeletonization technique. The total hospital complication rate was 12% with 9 deaths in the first 30 postoperative days (1.6%). Mediastinitis was observed in 6 patients (1.1%) Early angiographic controls showed a patent mammary graft rate of 98%. The use of both internal mammary arteries does not therefore increase postoperative morbidity or mortality. It may be proposed systematically in patients in good general condition and may provide long-term benefits in graft patency rates.
No preview · Article · Mar 1997 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among 138 patients treated with coronary angioplasty during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 35 (25%) had stent implantation. Mean age was 56 years and 83% were men. Mean onset of chest pain was 6.0 +/- 5.3 hours, and previous thrombolytic therapy was given to 10 patients (29%). Infarct location was anterior in 19 (54%), inferior in 14 (40%), and lateral in 2 patients (6%). Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction trial flows 0,1, and 2 were seen in 24 (69%), 6 (17%), and 5 patients (14%), respectively. The culprit vessel was the left anterior descending artery in 18 (51%), right coronary artery in 14 (40%), left circumflex in 2 (6%), and left main coronary artery in 1 patient (3%). Mean vessel diameter was 3.3 +/- 0.3 mm. Indications were: primary in 5 (14%), suboptimal result in 8 (23%), nonocclusive dissection in 14 (40%), and occlusive dissection in 8 patients (23%). Angiographic thrombus after initial angioplasty was present in 12 patients (34%). A total of 46 stents were implanted; mean balloon diameter and pressure were 3.4 +/- 0.4 mm and 15.5 +/- 2.2 atm, respectively. Residual diameter stenosis was 4 +/- 7%. There were 2 deaths; sudden 1, and after elective coronary artery bypass grafting in the other; 2 patients (6%) had groin hematomas. Mean hospitalization was 9.9 +/- 5.0 days. Repeat angiography revealed no stent occlusion. With initial intravenous heparin for 3 to 7 days, all patients received aspirin and ticlopidine for 1 month. Thus, AMI is not a contraindication for stent implantation. The benefits of stenting are a high success rte, low residual diameter stenosis, and low incidence of in-hospital recurrent ischemia. Reduction in restenosis rate in this setting is likely but remains to be determined.
No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that the skeletonized technique of harvesting the internal thoracic artery improves the surgical results of bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting, we reviewed our 7-year experience with this technique.
Between July 1987 and December 1994, 560 patients received bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts and 236 additional grafts (average 2.6 +/- 0.6 anastomoses per patient). There were 515 men (92%) and the average age was 56.9 +/- 8.8 years. There were 63 diabetic patients (11.3%). During harvesting, the internal thoracic arteries were always totally skeletonized from the surrounding tissues without the use of electrocautery.
Postoperative complications included reoperation for bleeding, 17 patients (3%), phrenic nerve paresis, 17 patients (3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome, 9 patients (1.6%), digestive complications, 8 patients (1.4%), neurologic complications, 6 patients (1.1%), and sternal complications, 6 patients (1.1%). No wound complications were observed in diabetic patients. The hospital mortality rate was 1.6% (9 patients, 2 cardiac causes). The early patency of internal thoracic artery grafts was 97.9%. Follow-up averages 29 +/- 20 months. There were 14 late deaths (4 cardiac causes). Angina recurred in 51 patients and the maximal stress test was abnormal in 47 patients.
Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting with skeletonized harvesting carried low post-operative mortality and morbidity and therefore it could be applied routinely without the fear of increased complication rate.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1996 · European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large lumen guiding catheters (9.5 to 11 French) are currently required to perform directional atherectomy. These rigid guiding catheters require modifications of usual techniques for manipulation and can induce ostial trauma and peripheral vascular complications. A new type of 9 French guiding catheter (Vista Brite tip, Cordis, Miami, FL) with an inner diameter of 0.098 inch and capable of accomodating atherectomy catheters (SCA-EX) was evaluated. In this preliminary study, 31 consecutive patients were included. Primary success was obtained in 27 (87%); no ostial trauma and only two minor groin hematomas were observed. After exchange with a conventional 10F guiding catheter, because of poor back-up, two of the four failures were successfully treated by DCA. In conclusion, these new 9F guiding catheters provide a useful alternative to currently available guiding catheters for DCA. Nevertheless, new shapes with better back-up are necessary to improve the primary success rate.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stenting of the infarct-related artery during the acute phase of myocardial infarction is a controversial issue. We report a case of primary multiple stent implantation in 2 vessels in a patient with AMI, double vessel total occlusion and cardiogenic shock. No intracoronary thrombotic therapy was given. Stenting provides an optimal angiographic result which may decrease the need for repeat interventions. Primary stenting in AMI deserves further investigation.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · The Journal of invasive cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several new techniques have been developed to get round the limitations of conventional coronary angioplasty. Most entail ablation of the atheromatous plaques by mechanical (atherectomy) or photochemical (laser excimer) means, whilst others (stents) shore up the vascular walls. Their use with conventional coronary balloon angioplasty optimises the results of treatment of complex lesions. This report describes the authors' experience in 1,266 patients (1,668 lesions) treated between January 1992 to December 1993. The new techniques were used in 33% of patients and 30% of lesions (rotational) atherectomy: 20%; stents: 5%; directional atherectomy: 3%; laser excimer: 2%) because of the defavourable angiographic characteristics of the lesions (eccentricity, calcification, bifurcation, length, chronic total occlusion, thrombosis, ostial stenosis, ulceration, saphenous vein graft). The primary success rate was 91% in the whole group (94 to 97% for the patients treated by the new techniques). The global major complication rate was 1.7%. The multi-instrumental revascularization adjusted to the coronary lesions (MIRACLE) gives a high primary success rate in patients with coronary lesions difficult to treat by conventional angioplasty. Randomised trials will be necessary to determine the precise indications of each technique with respect to the morphological characteristics of each lesion.
No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-nine patients who had coronary artery reoperations were divided into two groups: the 29 patients of the first group were operated conventionally with use of one internal mammary artery or a saphenous vein; the 20 patients of the second group were reoperated using both internal mammary arteries. Three patients (6%) died prematurely: two in the first and one in the second group. The rates of peri-operative infarction were 7% and 15% respectively. The average postoperative bleeding was 472 +/- 385 ml in the first group and 700 +/- 628 ml in the second group (NS). All patients are pauci-symptomatic and have a negative exercise stress test. The mortality and morbidity of coronary reoperation does not seem to be greater with double internal mammary artery bypass grafting. However, this technique should be reserved for patients who can derive long-term benefit from reoperation with arterial grafts, that is to say in patients in good clinical condition, less than 65 years of age with good left ventricular function. In these patients, double internal mammary artery bypass grafting may avoid a third operation for myocardial revascularisation.
No preview · Article · May 1993 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of tetralogy of Fallot and mitral stenosis is extremely rare. This is probably the first description of this association. The clinical and haemodynamic presentation is similar to that of cyanotic heart disease with pulmonary stenosis and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension. The mitral stenosis was probably congenital as it was diagnosed at 14 months of age.
No preview · Article · Jun 1992 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred patients underwent coronary revascularisation with both internal mammary arteries between 1987 and 1990. The average age of the patients was 55 years. The left internal mammary was used in 97 of the 100 cases as a pediculated graft to revascularise the left anterior descending (66 cases), left lateral (27 cases) or a bissecting artery (4 cases). The right internal mammary was used as a pediculated graft in 51 cases and as a free graft to revascularise a left lateral (51 cases), left anterior descending (29 cases) or right coronary artery (20 cases). There was one death in the first 30 postoperative days. Morbidity was low with no cases of sternal infection. The average postoperative bleeding was 633 +/- 550 ml per patient. The incidence of phrenic nerve paralysis decreased from 36% in the first 50 patients to 6% in the second 50 patients. Angiography at the 10th postoperative day showed 4 occlusions out of 132 internal mammary arteries opacified (97% patency). Ninety four patients are asymptomatic and have negative exercise stress tests. Mortality and morbidity of coronary surgery using the two internal mammary arteries are therefore the same as those of conventional coronary surgery using saphenous veinar only one internal mammary artery, providing that it is reserved for patients in good general condition, under 65 years of age, without obesity or diabetes. This technique of coronary artery revascularization should provide better long-term results because of the high patency rate of the grafts.
No preview · Article · Mar 1992 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Orion coronary angioplasty improved balloon on a wire system was used in 42 patients (53 stenoses) including 5 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 18 patients with unstable angina, and 4 patients with kissing balloon angioplasty via a single guiding catheter. All stenoses were crossed successfully and the immediate and in-hospital success rates were 98 and 93%, respectively. The simple construction, low profile, and improved steerability allowed successful and quick angioplasty of high grade stenotic lesions. This balloon catheter represents a significant advance in angioplasty technology.
No preview · Article · Jul 1990 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ambulatory coronary arteriography was carried out in 160 patients in the first 18 months' activity of our department (9.5% of all cardiac catheterisations and 16% of all coronary arteriographies during the same period). An absolutely stable clinical condition was the main criterion of selection for this investigation and the protocol consisted in day hospital admission, absence of routine anticoagulation, small calibre (5 French = 1.7 mm) catheters, mobilisation 4 hours and discharge 6 hours after the procedure. The patients were 38 women and 122 men whose average age was 55 years. The percutaneous femoral approach was used in most cases (95%). Single or multiple coronary artery disease was documented in 55 per cent of these patients: there were 2 cases of left main stem stenosis. Eight patients required full hospital admission, mainly because of the severity of the coronary lesions. Minor complications occurred in 2 per cent of cases. These results indicate that ambulatory coronary arteriography is safe, effective and economic. It could be used more extensively always providing that the contra-indications are respected.
No preview · Article · Mar 1990 · Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the first percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty performed in 1977 by Andreas Grüntzig, this non surgical technique has become an established method of myocardial revascularization. This overall report reviews the experience of the last ten years, acquired on several hundred thousand patients. We have especially detailed the chapters concerning the immediate and late results, restenosis, the "Achilles" heel of angioplasty, and concerning the indications, especially stressing multivessel disease and acute myocardial infarction, topics which are currently relatively controverted.
No preview · Article · Feb 1989 · Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie