[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine hypodermosis affecting livestock performance and the leather industry was still widespread in France up to the nineties despite successive directives from the Ministry of Agriculture since 1941, encouraging livestock owners to treat, on a voluntary basis. In 1969 the French Ministry of Agriculture, asked the national Farmers' Animal Health Organisation (FAHO), to plan a durable hypodermosis control programme and a working group including all the partners in cattle production was set up, under the coordination of the national FAHO. Improved systems of hypodermosis control, including new treatment and surveillance methods were developed. Among the main benefits obtained from this original work, were (i) the identification of scientific data which allowed inexpensive and accurate immuno-surveillance procedures, and a highly effective low-cost treatment, Ivomec, administered at the micro dose rate (2 microg/kg), which is environmentally non-threatening, and (ii) the development of a new strategy to manage the control programmes progressively, on a regional basis, in two to three concentric zones over three successive years at a maximum. The current programme, coordinated at the National level since 1998, has been implemented in each region of France. The compulsory systemic winter treatments directed against the endo-parasitic stage, carried out by technicians and veterinarians involved the entire bovine population in controlled zones. As each zone reached a hypodermosis herd prevalence of under 5%, usually after two years, the treatments were suspended. However treatments of the infected farms and contiguous farms were maintained. An immuno-survey was carried out, each winter, to evaluate the prevalence of the disease and detect any residual foci or re-infestations. Since 2002, bovine hypodermosis in France is under control with immuno-surveillance maintained at a very low cost. In 2006 hypodermosis became a notifiable disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to compare techniques to diagnose herds infected by Fasciola hepatica. Based on a previous survey in the slaughter houses of Côtes-du-Nord, 37 herds were selected on the frequency of condemned livers per herd. Fecal examinations and immunodiagnosis by ELISA technique were performed. Antibodies were searched for in the pooled milk of each herd and in sera of 30 to 80% of the cattle. On 9 herds without any previous condemnation, seven had a negative immunodiagnosis on pooled milk and 0 to 16% serologically positive animals. The two other herds had a suspect immunodiagnosis on pooled milk and 28 to 65% serologically positive animals. In nine herds presenting a previous liver seizure, immunodiagnosis on pooled milk were positive on eight of them. 42 to 100% of the cattle were serologically positive and 25 to 75% of the fecal examinations were positive. In 19 herds having previously two or more liver confiscations, 68 to 100% of the cattle were serologically positive, all the pooled milk were immunologically positive and just one herd, treated previously, had a 100% negative fecal examination. The results of fecal examination and immunodiagnosis are globally comparable to the slaughter house survey. Nevertheless the sensitivity of the fecal examination and more specially the immunodiagnosis is higher. The herd diagnosis based on the examination of pooled milk has a practical application in further investigation of parasitic diseases distribution in dairy herd.
No preview · Article · Feb 1985 · Annales de recherches vétérinaires. Annals of veterinary research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quasi-sequential sampling plan for observing cattle was undertaken in the framework of Hypoderma bovis epidemiological surveillance. This plan enabled us to test whether or not the prevalence of Hypoderma bovis is within a threshold p0 chosen for an eradication scheme or for qualifying a zone. The sampling cost was reduced but the estimation precision remained acceptable. The sensitivity of monthly controls with respect to the reference period (April, May, June, July) was studied from data observed over 6 consecutive years in Côtes d'Armor, France. The best ratio sensitivity/sampling cost was obtained with a unique counting plan in June where 48% (36 to 60%) of the herds found to be infested during the reference period were detected. The test procedure concerning the prevalence level was then adapted to take into account the sensitivity of the observation method. This is tantamount to reducing the threshold p0.