[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Military personnel were given standardized instruction on hemostatic dressings as part of a tactical combat casualty care course (TC3). Soldiers were randomized to a hemostatic dressing. Proximal arterial (femoral and axillary) injuries were created in extremities of live tissue models (goat or pig). Participants attempted hemostasis through standardized dressing application. Evaluation of hemostasis was performed at 2- and 4-minute intervals by physicians blinded to participants' training level.
Military personnel that are due to deploy are given "refresher" instruction by their units as well as participating in the TC3 to further hone their medical skills prior to deployment. The TC3 is simulation training designed to simulate combat environments and real-life trauma scenarios.
Military personnel due to deploy, physicians (residents and board certified surgeons), animal care technicians, and veterinarian support.
Celox 42 (33%), ChitoGauze 11 (9%), Combat Gauze 45 (35%), and HemCon wafer 28 (22%) bandages were applied in 126 arterial injuries created in 45 animals in a standardized model of hemorrhage. Overall, no significant difference in hemostasis and volume of blood loss was seen between the 4 dressings at 2 or 4 minutes. Combat gauze was the most effective at controlling hemorrhage, achieving 83% hemostasis by 4 minutes. Combat gauze was also rated as the easiest dressing to use by the soldiers (p<0.05). When compared to nonmedical personnel, active duty soldiers with prior medical training improved hemostasis at 4 minutes by 20% (p = 0.05).
There is no significant difference in hemostasis between hemostatic bandages for proximal arterial hemorrhage. Hemostasis significantly improves between 2 and 4 minutes using direct pressure and hemostatic agents. Prior medical training leads to 20% greater efficacy when using hemostatic dressings.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Surgical Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced topical hemostatic agents are increasingly utilized to control traumatic hemorrhage. We sought to determine the efficacy of three chitosan based hemostatic agents in a lethal groin injury model when applied by combat medic first responders.
After creation of a standardized femoral artery injury in a goat model, medics attempted hemorrhage control with standard gauze dressing followed by randomization to one of three hemostatic agents in this two tiered study. In the first tier, medics were randomized to either a chitosan based one-sided wafer (OS) or a dual-sided, flexible, roll (DS). In the second tier, medics were randomized to the flexible DS dressing or a chitosan powder (CP). Efficacy of gauze, each chitosan agent, proper application, and participant surveys were obtained and included for analysis using univariate techniques.
From January 2007 to June 2007, 55 (45%) DS, 36 (29%) OS, and 32 (26%) CP agents were used to treat 123 actively bleeding arterial injuries in 62 animals. Standard gauze failed to stop hemorrhage in 122 (99%) groins. Although all three chitosan agents were marginally effective at 2 min, the recommended time for application, hemostasis improved after 4 min. The DS dressing was the most effective, controlling hemorrhage 76% at 4 min. Of the failures, 3 (23%) DS and 9 (53%) OS were due to improper application. End-user survey results demonstrated that medics preferred the DS dressing 77% and 60% over the OS and CP, respectively.
Chitosan based bandages are significantly more effective at hemorrhage control compared to standard gauze field dressings. The dual-sided chitosan dressing demonstrated better hemorrhage control than the one-sided dressing and the chitosan powder, and was less likely to fail despite application errors.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Surgical Research