[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A correlation between elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and white matter injury or abnormal neurologic outcome has been established in the preterm infant. In the full-term neonate, few studies exist linking elevation of cytokines with encephalopathy and poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Our aims were to investigate if serum interleukin-6 concentrations in delivering mothers and their offspring at birth are associated with perinatal asphyxia, and to examine the relation of interleukin-6 levels to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to the neurological outcome.
Serum interleukin-6 levels were measured at birth, 24 and 48 h of life in 50 consecutive term uninfected newborns with perinatal asphyxia and 113 randomly selected healthy term newborns, and at delivery in their mothers.
The median cord interleukin-6 concentrations in the infants who developed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was 376-fold as high as the values in the normal infants (P < 0.0001) and 5.5-fold as high as those in the infants with asphyxia who did not develop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (P < 0.05). There was also a significant relationship between interleukin-6 and the degree of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and between interleukin-6 and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. Regardless of outcome, in the asphyxiated infants the interleukin-6 values were significantly lower at both 24 and 48 h of life than at birth, with a significant decline from 24 to 48 h of life. Among mothers of the asphyxiated neonates, there were no significant differences in interleukin-6 concentrations between those delivering neonates with and without hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Measurement of IL-6 concentrations in the umbilical cord of neonates with perinatal asphyxia may be useful to identify early, and in a relatively simple way, those who are most likely to have subsequent brain injury and adverse outcome.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · European Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of the diagnostic accuracy of most laboratory tests for early-onset neonatal sepsis have yielded variable results. We investigated whether some of this variation might be attributable to differences in population baseline severity and risk status as well as to specific ante- and perinatal variables, independent of the presence of neonatal infection.
The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP) was used to define illness severity, with SNAP Perinatal Extension (SNAP-PE) used to define the combined physiologic and perinatal mortality risk. A total of 134 ill newborns (19 with early-onset infection and 115 with no infection) were available for simultaneous analysis of the association of SNAP, SNAP-PE, and maternal and perinatal variables with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations at birth and at 24 and 48 h of life.
Early-onset neonatal infection was associated with significant increases in CRP, IL-6, and PCT concentrations at all three time points, independent of illness severity. However, among babies without infection, higher SNAP and SNAP-PE scores were associated with higher IL-6 concentrations at birth. Certain maternal or perinatal variables altered IL-6 and PCT values in the infected as well as in the uninfected neonates. However, if different cutoff points were used at any of the three neonatal ages, PCT sensitivity and specificity were greater than those of CRP or IL-6.
Illness severity and risk status are unlikely to interfere with the use of CRP and PCT for detection of early-onset neonatal sepsis. In contrast, the diagnostic value of IL-6 at birth may be altered by physiologic severity and risk indexes. The reliability of CRP, IL-6, and PCT for the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal infection requires specific cutoff values for each evaluation time point over the first 48 h of life.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Clinical Chemistry