Adrian F Ochsenbein

Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (86)829.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous cancer vaccination trials often aimed at the activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses using short (8-10mer) peptides and targeted CD4+ helper T cells (TH) with HLA class II-binding longer peptides (12-16mers) derived from tumor antigens. Accordingly, immunomonitoring of these studies focused on the detection of CTL responses against short and TH-responses to the long peptides applied. A possible induction of concurrent TH-responses to short peptides was widely neglected. In a recent Phase I vaccination trial, 53 patients with different solid cancers were vaccinated with EMD640744, a cocktail of five survivin-derived short (9 or 10mer) peptides in Montanide® ISA 51VG. Performing thorough immunomonitoring in 49 patients, we detected strong CD8+ T cell responses in 63 % of the patients. In addition, we found, yet unexpected, CD4+ TH cell responses against at least two of the five short peptides in 61% (23/38) of patients analyzed. The two peptides were recognized by HLA-DP4- and HLA-DR-restricted TH1 cells. Some short peptide-reactive (sp)CD4 T cells showed high functional avidity. Here, we show that a short peptide vaccine is able to activate a specific CD4+ T cell repertoire in many patients, facilitating a strong combined CD4+/CD8+ T cell response.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Postoperative hemithoracic radiotherapy has been used to treat malignant pleural mesothelioma, but it has not been assessed in a randomised trial. We assessed high-dose hemithoracic radiotherapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extrapleural pneumonectomy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods: We did this phase 2 trial in two parts at 14 hospitals in Switzerland, Belgium, and Germany. We enrolled patients with pathologically confirmed malignant pleural mesothelioma; resectable TNM stages T1-3 N0-2, M0; WHO performance status 0-1; age 18-70 years. In part 1, patients were given three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) and pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 given every 3 weeks) and extrapleural pneumonectomy; the primary endpoint was complete macroscopic resection (R0-1). In part 2, participants with complete macroscopic resection were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive high-dose radiotherapy or not. The target volume for radiotherapy encompassed the entire hemithorax, the thoracotomy channel, and mediastinal nodal stations if affected by the disease or violated surgically. A boost was given to areas at high risk for locoregional relapse. The allocation was stratified by centre, histology (sarcomatoid vs epithelioid or mixed), mediastinal lymph node involvement (N0-1 vs N2), and T stage (T1-2 vs T3). The primary endpoint of part 1 was the proportion of patients achieving complete macroscopic resection (R0 and R1). The primary endpoint in part 2 was locoregional relapse-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00334594. Findings: We enrolled patients between Dec 7, 2005, and Oct 17, 2012. Overall, we analysed 151 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, of whom 113 (75%) had extrapleural pneumonectomy. Median follow-up was 54·2 months (IQR 32-66). 52 (34%) of 151 patients achieved an objective response. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxic effects were neutropenia (21 [14%] of 151 patients), anaemia (11 [7%]), and nausea or vomiting (eight [5%]). 113 patients had extrapleural pneumonectomy, with complete macroscopic resection achieved in 96 (64%) of 151 patients. We enrolled 54 patients in part 2; 27 in each group. The main reasons for exclusion were patient refusal (n=20) and ineligibility (n=10). 25 of 27 patients completed radiotherapy. Median total radiotherapy dose was 55·9 Gy (IQR 46·8-56·0). Median locoregional relapse-free survival from surgery, was 7·6 months (95% CI 4·5-10·7) in the no radiotherapy group and 9·4 months (6·5-11·9) in the radiotherapy group. The most common grade 3 or higher toxic effects related to radiotherapy were nausea or vomiting (three [11%] of 27 patients), oesophagitis (two [7%]), and pneumonitis (two [7%]). One patient died of pneumonitis. We recorded no toxic effects data for the control group. Interpretation: Our findings do not support the routine use of hemithoracic radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extrapleural pneumonectomy. Funding: Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation, Eli Lilly.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: One of the standard options in the treatment of stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery. We did a randomised trial to investigate whether the addition of neoadjuvant radiotherapy improves outcomes. We enrolled patients in 23 centres in Switzerland, Germany and Serbia. Eligible patients had pathologically proven, stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer and were randomly assigned to treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio. Those in the chemoradiotherapy group received three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (100 mg/m(2) cisplatin and 85 mg/m(2) docetaxel) followed by radiotherapy with 44 Gy in 22 fractions over 3 weeks, and those in the control group received neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. All patients were scheduled to undergo surgery. Randomisation was stratified by centre, mediastinal bulk (less than 5 cm vs 5 cm or more), and weight loss (5% or more vs less than 5% in the previous 6 months). The primary endpoint was event-free survival. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00030771. From 2001 to 2012, 232 patients were enrolled, of whom 117 were allocated to the chemoradiotherapy group and 115 to the chemotherapy group. Median event-free survival was similar in the two groups at 12·8 months (95% CI 9·7-22·9) in the chemoradiotherapy group and 11·6 months (8·4-15·2) in the chemotherapy group (p=0·67). Median overall survival was 37·1 months (95% CI 22·6-50·0) with radiotherapy, compared with 26·2 months (19·9-52·1) in the control group. Chemotherapy-related toxic effects were reported in most patients, but 91% of patients completed three cycles of chemotherapy. Radiotherapy-induced grade 3 dysphagia was seen in seven (7%) patients. Three patients died in the control group within 30 days after surgery. Radiotherapy did not add any benefit to induction chemotherapy followed by surgery. We suggest that one definitive local treatment modality combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy is adequate to treat resectable stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer. Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI), Swiss Cancer League, and Sanofi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), oncogenic BCR-ABL1 activates the Wnt pathway, which is fundamental for leukemia stem cell (LSC) maintenance. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment reduces Wnt signaling in LSCs and often results in molecular remission of CML; however, LSCs persist long term despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition, ultimately causing disease relapse. We demonstrate that TKIs induce the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand CD70 in LSCs by down-regulating microRNA-29, resulting in reduced CD70 promoter DNA methylation and up-regulation of the transcription factor specificity protein 1. The resulting increase in CD70 triggered CD27 signaling and compensatory Wnt pathway activation. Combining TKIs with CD70 blockade effectively eliminated human CD34(+) CML stem/progenitor cells in xenografts and LSCs in a murine CML model. Therefore, targeting TKI-induced expression of CD70 and compensatory Wnt signaling resulting from the CD70/CD27 interaction is a promising approach to overcoming treatment resistance in CML LSCs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Science translational medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by the clonal expansion of one or more myeloid cell lineage. In most cases, proliferation of the malignant clone is ascribed to defined genetic alterations. MPNs are also associated with aberrant expression and activity of multiple cytokines; however, the mechanisms by which these cytokines contribute to disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we reveal a non-redundant role for steady-state IL-33 in supporting dysregulated myelopoiesis in a murine model of MPN. Genetic ablation of the IL-33 signaling pathway was sufficient and necessary to restore normal hematopoiesis and abrogate MPN-like disease in animals lacking the inositol phosphatase SHIP. Stromal cell-derived IL-33 stimulated the secretion of cytokines and growth factors by myeloid and non-hematopoietic cells of the BM, resulting in myeloproliferation in SHIP-deficient animals. Additionally, in the transgenic JAK2V617F model, the onset of MPN was delayed in animals lacking IL-33 in radio-resistant cells. In human BM, we detected increased numbers of IL-33-expressing cells, specifically in biopsies from MPN patients. Exogenous IL-33 promoted cytokine production and colony formation by primary CD34+ MPN stem/progenitor cells from patients. Moreover, IL-33 improved the survival of JAK2V617F-positive cell lines. Together, these data indicate a central role for IL-33 signaling in the pathogenesis of MPNs.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
  • Serena Galli · Inti Zlobec · Christian Schürch · Aurel Perren · Adrian F. Ochsenbein · Yara Banz
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    ABSTRACT: Binding of CD47 to signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), an inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates phagocytosis. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CD47 is overexpressed on peripheral blasts and leukemia stem cells and inversely correlates with survival. Aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between CD47 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a bone marrow (BM) tissue microarray (TMA) and clinical outcome in AML patients. CD47 staining on BM leukemia blasts was scored semi-quantitatively and correlated with clinical parameters and known prognostic factors in AML. Low (scores 0-2) and high (score 3) CD47 protein expression were observed in 75% and 25% of AML patients. CD47 expression significantly correlated with percentage BM blast infiltration and peripheral blood blasts. Moreover, high CD47 expression was associated with nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutations. In contrast, CD47 expression did not significantly correlate with overall or progression free survival or response to therapy. In summary, a BM TMA permits rapid and reproducible semi-quantitative analysis of CD47 protein expression by IHC. While CD47 expression on circulating AML blasts has been shown to be a negative prognostic marker for a very defined population of AML patients with NK AML, CD47 expression on AML BM blasts is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Leukemia research
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    ABSTRACT: Most guidelines recommend at least 2-cm excision margin for melanomas thicker than 2 mm. We evaluated whether 1- or 2-cm excision margins for melanoma (>2 mm) result in different outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study on patients with melanomas (>2 mm) who underwent tumor excision with 1-cm (228 patients) or 2-cm (97 patients) margins to investigate presence of local recurrences, locoregional and distant metastases, and disease-free and overall survival. In all, 325 patients with mean age of 61.84 years and Breslow thickness of 4.36 mm were considered for the study with a median follow-up of 1852 days (1995-2012). There was no significant difference in the frequency of locoregional and distant metastasis between the 2 groups (P = .311 and .571). The survival analysis showed no differences for disease-free (P = .800; hazard ratio 0.948; 95% confidence interval 0.627-1.433) and overall (P = .951; hazard ratio 1.018; 95% confidence interval 0.575-1.803) survival. The study was not prospectively randomized. Our study did not show any significant differences in important outcome parameters such as local or distant metastases and overall survival. A prospective study testing 1- versus 2-cm excision margin is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: The goal was to demonstrate that tailored therapy, according to tumor histology and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, and the introduction of novel drug combinations in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer are promising for further investigation. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial with mandatory EGFR testing and 2 strata. Patients with EGFR wild type received 4 cycles of bevacizumab, pemetrexed, and cisplatin, followed by maintenance with bevacizumab and pemetrexed until progression. Patients with EGFR mutations received bevacizumab and erlotinib until progression. Patients had computed tomography scans every 6 weeks and repeat biopsy at progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) ≥ 35% at 6 months in stratum EGFR wild type; 77 patients were required to reach a power of 90% with an alpha of 5%. Secondary end points were median PFS, overall survival, best overall response rate (ORR), and tolerability. Further biomarkers and biopsy at progression were also evaluated. A total of 77 evaluable patients with EGFR wild type received an average of 9 cycles (range, 1-25). PFS at 6 months was 45.5%, median PFS was 6.9 months, overall survival was 12.1 months, and ORR was 62%. Kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene mutations and circulating vascular endothelial growth factor negatively correlated with survival, but thymidylate synthase expression did not. A total of 20 patients with EGFR mutations received an average of 16 cycles. PFS at 6 months was 70%, median PFS was 14 months, and ORR was 70%. Biopsy at progression was safe and successful in 71% of the cases. Both combination therapies were promising for further studies. Biopsy at progression was feasible and will be part of future SAKK studies to investigate molecular mechanisms of resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: - Copyright © 2015, Ferrata Storti Foundation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Haematologica
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    C. Riether · T. Gschwend · A. L. Huguenin · C. M. Schurch · A. F. Ochsenbein
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Leukemia
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    ABSTRACT: Neutropenia is probably the strongest known predisposition to infection with otherwise harmless environmental or microbiota-derived species. Because initial swarming of neutrophils at the site of infection occurs within minutes, rather than the hours required to induce "emergency granulopoiesis," the relevance of having high numbers of these cells available at any one time is obvious. We observed that germ-free (GF) animals show delayed clearance of an apathogenic bacterium after systemic challenge. In this article, we show that the size of the bone marrow myeloid cell pool correlates strongly with the complexity of the intestinal microbiota. The effect of colonization can be recapitulated by transferring sterile heat-treated serum from colonized mice into GF wild-type mice. TLR signaling was essential for microbiota-driven myelopoiesis, as microbiota colonization or transferring serum from colonized animals had no effect in GF MyD88(-/-)TICAM1(-/-) mice. Amplification of myelopoiesis occurred in the absence of microbiota-specific IgG production. Thus, very low concentrations of microbial Ags and TLR ligands, well below the threshold required for induction of adaptive immunity, sets the bone marrow myeloid cell pool size. Coevolution of mammals with their microbiota has probably led to a reliance on microbiota-derived signals to provide tonic stimulation to the systemic innate immune system and to maintain vigilance to infection. This suggests that microbiota changes observed in dysbiosis, obesity, or antibiotic therapy may affect the cross talk between hematopoiesis and the microbiota, potentially exacerbating inflammatory or infectious states in the host.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Immunology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014
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    C Riether · C M Schürch · A.F. Ochsenbein
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare, multipotent cells that generate via progenitor and precursor cells of all blood lineages. Similar to normal hematopoiesis, leukemia is also hierarchically organized and a subpopulation of leukemic cells, the leukemic stem cells (LSCs), is responsible for disease initiation and maintenance and gives rise to more differentiated malignant cells. Although genetically abnormal, LSCs share many characteristics with normal HSCs, including quiescence, multipotency and self-renewal. Normal HSCs reside in a specialized microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM), the so-called HSC niche that crucially regulates HSC survival and function. Many cell types including osteoblastic, perivascular, endothelial and mesenchymal cells contribute to the HSC niche. In addition, the BM functions as primary and secondary lymphoid organ and hosts various mature immune cell types, including T and B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages that contribute to the HSC niche. Signals derived from the HSC niche are necessary to regulate demand-adapted responses of HSCs and progenitor cells after BM stress or during infection. LSCs occupy similar niches and depend on signals from the BM microenvironment. However, in addition to the cell types that constitute the HSC niche during homeostasis, in leukemia the BM is infiltrated by activated leukemia-specific immune cells. Leukemic cells express different antigens that are able to activate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. It is well documented that activated T cells can contribute to the control of leukemic cells and it was hoped that these cells may be able to target and eliminate the therapy-resistant LSCs. However, the actual interaction of leukemia-specific T cells with LSCs remains ill-defined. Paradoxically, many immune mechanisms that evolved to activate emergency hematopoiesis during infection may actually contribute to the expansion and differentiation of LSCs, promoting leukemia progression. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which the immune system regulates HSCs and LSCs.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 4 July 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.89.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Cell Death and Differentiation
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES Molecular subclassification of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential to improve clinical outcome. This study assessed the prognostic and predictive value of circulating micro-RNA (miRNA) in patients with non-squamous NSCLC enrolled in the phase II SAKK (Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research) trial 19/05, receiving uniform treatment with first-line bevacizumab and erlotinib followed by platinum-based chemotherapy at progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty patients with baseline and 24h blood samples were included from SAKK 19/05. The primary study endpoint was to identify prognostic (overall survival, OS) miRNA's. Patient samples were analyzed with Agilent human miRNA 8x60K microarrays, each glass slide formatted with eight high-definition 60K arrays. Each array contained 40 probes targeting each of the 1347 miRNA. Data preprocessing included quantile normalization using robust multi-array average (RMA) algorithm. Prognostic and predictive miRNA expression profiles were identified by Spearman's rank correlation test (percentage tumor shrinkage) or log-rank testing (for time-to-event endpoints). RESULTS Data preprocessing kept 49 patients and 424 miRNA for further analysis. Ten miRNA's were significantly associated with OS, with hsa-miR-29a being the strongest prognostic marker (HR=6.44, 95%-CI 2.39-17.33). Patients with high has-miR-29a expression had a significantly lower survival at 10 months compared to patients with a low expression (54% versus 83%). Six out of the 10 miRNA's (hsa-miRN-29a, hsa-miR-542-5p, hsa-miR-502-3p, hsa-miR-376a, hsa-miR-500a, hsa-miR-424) were insensitive to perturbations according to jackknife cross-validation on their HR for OS. The respective principal component analysis (PCA) defined a meta-miRNA signature including the same 6 miRNA's, resulting in a HR of 0.66 (95%-CI 0.53-0.82). CONCLUSION Cell-free circulating miRNA-profiling successfully identified a highly prognostic 6-gene signature in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Circulating miRNA profiling should further be validated in external cohorts for the selection and monitoring of systemic treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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    Christian M Schürch · Carsten Riether · Adrian F Ochsenbein
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    ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) play a major role in host defense against intracellular pathogens, but a complete clearance of pathogens and return to homeostasis requires the regulated interplay of the innate and acquired immune systems. Here, we show that interferon γ (IFNγ) secreted by effector CTLs stimulates hematopoiesis at the level of early multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces myeloid differentiation. IFNγ did not primarily affect hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells directly. Instead, it promoted the release of hematopoietic cytokines, including interleukin 6 from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the hematopoietic stem cell niche, which in turn reduced the expression of the transcription factors Runx-1 and Cebpα in early hematopoietic progenitor cells and increased myeloid differentiation. Therefore, our study indicates that, during an acute viral infection, CTLs indirectly modulate early multipotent hematopoietic progenitors via MSCs in order to trigger the temporary activation of emergency myelopoiesis and promote clearance of the infection.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Cell stem cell
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    ABSTRACT: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis family. Essential for tumor cell survival and overexpressed in most cancers, survivin is a promising target for anti-cancer immunotherapy. Immunogenicity has been demonstrated in multiple cancers. Nonetheless, few clinical trials have demonstrated survivin-vaccine-induced immune responses. This phase I trial was conducted to test whether vaccine EMD640744, a cocktail of five HLA class I-binding survivin peptides in Montanide(®) ISA 51 VG, promotes anti-survivin T-cell responses in patients with solid cancers. The primary objective was to compare immunologic efficacy of EMD640744 at doses of 30, 100, and 300 μg. Secondary objectives included safety, tolerability, and clinical efficacy. In total, 49 patients who received ≥2 EMD640744 injections with available baseline- and ≥1 post-vaccination samples [immunologic-diagnostic (ID)-intention-to-treat] were analyzed by ELISpot- and peptide/MHC-multimer staining, revealing vaccine-activated peptide-specific T-cell responses in 31 patients (63 %). This cohort included the per study protocol relevant ID population for the primary objective, i.e., T-cell responses by ELISpot in 17 weeks following first vaccination, as well as subjects who discontinued the study before week 17 but showed responses to the treatment. No dose-dependent effects were observed. In the majority of patients (61 %), anti-survivin responses were detected only after vaccination, providing evidence for de novo induction. Best overall tumor response was stable disease (28 %). EMD640744 was well tolerated; local injection-site reactions constituted the most frequent adverse event. Vaccination with EMD640744 elicited T-cell responses against survivin peptides in the majority of patients, demonstrating the immunologic efficacy of EMD640744.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: The integrin antagonist cilengitide has been explored as an adjunct with anti-angiogenic properties to standard of care temozolomide chemoradiotherapy (TMZ/RT → TMZ) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Preclinical data as well as anecdotal clinical observations indicate that anti-angiogenic treatment may result in altered patterns of tumor progression. Using a standardized approach, we analyzed patterns of progression on MRI in 21 patients enrolled onto a phase 2 trial of cilengitide added to TMZ/RT → TMZ in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Thirty patients from the experimental treatment arm of the EORTC/NCIC pivotal TMZ trial served as a reference. MRIcro software was used to map location and extent of initial preoperative and recurrent tumors on MRI of both groups into the same stereotaxic space which were then analyzed using an automated tool of image analysis. Clinical and outcome data of the cilengitide-treated patients were similar to those of the EORTC/NCIC trial except for a higher proportion of patients with a methylated O(6)-methylguanyl-DNA-methyltransferase gene promoter. Analysis of recurrence pattern revealed neither a difference in the size of the recurrent tumor nor in the distance of the recurrences from the preoperative tumor location between groups. Overall frequencies of distant recurrences were 20 % in the reference group and 19 % (4/21 patients) in the cilengitide group. Compared with TMZ/RT → TMZ alone, the addition of cilengitide does not alter patterns of progression. This analysis does not support concerns that integrin antagonism by cilengitide may induce a more aggressive phenotype at progression, but also provides no evidence for an anti-invasive activity of cilengitide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune reactions. While TREM-1-amplified responses likely aid an improved detection and elimination of pathogens, excessive production of cytokines and oxygen radicals can also severely harm the host. Studies addressing the pathogenic role of TREM-1 during endotoxin-induced shock or microbial sepsis have so far mostly relied on the administration of TREM-1 fusion proteins or peptides representing part of the extracellular domain of TREM-1. However, binding of these agents to the yet unidentified TREM-1 ligand could also impact signaling through alternative receptors. More importantly, controversial results have been obtained regarding the requirement of TREM-1 for microbial control. To unambiguously investigate the role of TREM-1 in homeostasis and disease, we have generated mice deficient in Trem1. Trem1(-/-) mice are viable, fertile and show no altered hematopoietic compartment. In CD4(+) T cell- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced models of colitis, Trem1(-/-) mice displayed significantly attenuated disease that was associated with reduced inflammatory infiltrates and diminished expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Trem1(-/-) mice also exhibited reduced neutrophilic infiltration and decreased lesion size upon infection with Leishmania major. Furthermore, reduced morbidity was observed for influenza virus-infected Trem1(-/-) mice. Importantly, while immune-associated pathologies were significantly reduced, Trem1(-/-) mice were equally capable of controlling infections with L. major, influenza virus, but also Legionella pneumophila as Trem1(+/+) controls. Our results not only demonstrate an unanticipated pathogenic impact of TREM-1 during a viral and parasitic infection, but also indicate that therapeutic blocking of TREM-1 in distinct inflammatory disorders holds considerable promise by blunting excessive inflammation while preserving the capacity for microbial control.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Molecular subclassification of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential to improve clinical outcome. This study assessed the prognostic and predictive value of circulating micro-RNA (miRNA) in patients with non-squamous NSCLC enrolled in the phase II SAKK (Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research) trial 19/05, receiving uniform treatment with first-line bevacizumab and erlotinib followed by platinum-based chemotherapy at progression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with baseline and 24 hours blood samples were included from SAKK 19/05. The primary study endpoint was to identify prognostic (overall survival, OS) miRNA's. Patient samples were analyzed with Agilent human miRNA 8 × 60 K microarrays, each glass slide formated with eight high-definition 60 K arrays. Each array contained 40 probes targeting each of the 1′347 miRNA. Data preprocessing included quantile normalization using robust multi-array average (RMA) algorithm. Prognostic and predictive miRNA expression profiles were identified by Spearman's rank correlation test (percentage tumor shrinkage) or log-rank testing (for time-to-event endpoints). Results: Data preprocessing kept 49 patients and 424 miRNA for further analysis. Ten miRNA's were significantly associated with OS, with hsa-miR-29a being the strongest prognostic marker (HR = 6.44, 95%-CI 2.39-17.33). Patients with high has-miR-29a expression had a significantly lower survival at 10 months compared to patients with a low expression (54% versus 83%). Six out of the 10 miRNA's (hsa-miRN-29a, hsa-miR-542-5p, hsa-miR-502-3p, hsa-miR-376a, hsa-miR-500a, hsa-miR-424) were insensitive to perturbations according to jackknife cross-validation on their HR for OS. The respective principal component analysis (PCA) defined a meta-miRNA signature including the same 6 miRNA's, resulting in a HR of 0.66 (95%-CI 0.53-0.82). Conclusion Cell-free circulating miRNA-profiling successfully identified a highly prognostic 6-gene signature in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Circulating miRNA profiling should further be validated in external cohorts for the selection and monitoring of systemic treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    Christian M Schürch · Carsten Riether · Adrian F Ochsenbein
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    ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20 years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD), reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to "malignant" DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Frontiers in Immunology

Publication Stats

6k Citations
829.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2015
    • Universität Bern
      • Department of Clinical Research
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2001-2015
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Clinical Research
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1998-2002
    • University of Zurich
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      • • Institut für Experimentelle Immunologie
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1999
    • University Hospital Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland