[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When fetal red cells enter the maternal circulation from placenta, an event would be happened that is described as feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH). This life-threatening condition could be detected by using RBC antigens (surface antigens and intracellular antigens). Therefore, the measurement of fetal RBC in an artificial model would be useful to calculate FMH and consequently the dosage of Rhogam for prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FMH in an artificial mixture model.
A series of 40 artificial specimens were prepared consisting of Rh(D) negative adult blood (non-immunized) spiked with varying amounts of Rh(D) positive cord blood from mothers between 20-30 years old in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Monoclonal anti-D and anti-HbF (fetal hemoglobin) were used for detection of fetal RBC in artificial mixture sample modeling.
This study showed that the percentage of fetal cells in artificial sample for anti-D antigen is in ranges of 0.28%-0.32% for a 0.25% dilution mixture, and 1.3%-2.05% for the mixture with dilution 2%. In addition, the ranges of data for anti-HbF staining was obtained 0.2%-0.34% for the 0.25% dilution sample, and the ranges of 1.04-1.8% for the 2% dilution. The regression analysis indicated that the correlation of anti-D assessment with expected standard method was r2 = 0.9672 and anti-HbF assessment was r2 = 0.8842.
Although both molecule targets could be used for detection of fetal RBC, in this model, anti-D staining was more accurate than anti-HbF staining. However, since anti-D can not be utilized for low-density or weak phenotype and other incompatibility, the anti-HbF labeling could be used for all FMH.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Iranian biomedical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal sepsis is a disease of infants who are less than 1 month of age. These infants are clinically ill, and their blood culture are positive for bacteria. The reported incidence of neonatal sepsis for all infants is 1 to 10 per 1000 live births. The mortality rate is 4.2-26%. The clinical signs are not specific and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is one of the most difficult tasks in clinical medicine. The aim of this work was determination of CD11b sensitivity and specificity for early detection of neonatal sepsis. We studied 65 neonates with gestational age of 27 to 38 weeks who were suspected for sepsis within the 28 days of life. Whole blood was obtained from neonates to determine CD11b expression on peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. C-Reactive protein (CRP) was measured qualitatively. Neonates were divided into two groups. Classification was based on the result of the blood culture. In the sepsis group all of the neonates (n=8) showed positive blood culture and clinical symptoms. In the suspected group (n=57) the neonates showed clinical signs but blood cultures were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of CD11b were 75%, 100% respectively. Also positive and negative predictive values of CD11b were 100% and 86% respectively. Results of present study and previous studies showed that measurement of neutrophil surface markers can be useful for diagnosis of infection in the early phases. Also, the quantitative measurement of CRP in addition to CD11b further enhances the ability to diagnose infections and improves sensitivity and negative predictive value by 100%.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening disease with an incidence of 1 to 10 per 1000 live births and a mortality rate of 15% to 50%. The clinical signs are non-specific and indistinguishable from those caused by a variety of neonatal non-infectious disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the importance of CD64 expression (FcγRI), a neutrophil surface marker, in early diagnosis of neo-natal sepsis. Methods: The studied population comprised of 65 neonates with gesta-tional ages of 27 to 38 weeks, suspected of having sepsis in the first 28 days of life and 12 healthy neonates with physiologic hyperbilirubinemia. One ml of whole blood was obtained to determine CD64 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. Results: CD64 expression was significantly higher in the group with sepsis than the control groups (P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of CD64 were 92.3% and 100%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values of CD64 for identifying sepsis were 100% and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: A change in cell surface expression of CD64 on peripheral blood neutrophils may be considered as a sensitive marker for detection of neonatal sepsis if used in combina-tion with other laboratory parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between protamine deficiency assessed by CMA3 and protamine 1/protamine 2 (P1/P2) ratio. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 71 patients referring to Isfahan Fertility and Infertility center. Semen analysis was assessed according to WHO criteria. CMA3 staining was use to determine protamine deficiency. P1/P2 ratio was evaluated by nuclear protein extraction, acetic acid urea poly acrylamide gel-electrophoresis and analysis of protein bands with related software. Western blot was carried out with primary anti P1 and anti P2 antibody to determine protamine 1 and protamine 2. Of the 71 patients 45 patients underwent lntracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). Results: A negative significant correlation was observed between fertilization rate with protamine deficiency and P1/P2 ratio. However, no significant correlation was observed between protamine deficiencies with P1/P2 ratio. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that protamine deficiency can be assessed by CMA3; however this procedure does not indicate type of protamine deficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection. The main effector cells against mycobacterium tuberculosis are CD4+ T lymphocytes. Our objective in this research was to evaluate the quantity of T lymphocytes and their subpopulations before and after treatments with combination of 4 drugs (Rifampcin, Isoniaside, pyrasinamide, Ethambutal) for 2 months directly in sputum-positive tuberculosis patients. Twenty patients as cases and twenty healthy people were selected as controls. Flow cytometry was used for TCD3+, TCD4+ and TCD8+ lymphocytes by using monoclonal antibodies. Our results indicated that there was alteration in cell mediated immunity during tuberculosis showing itself as decrease in TCD3+ and TCD4+ lymphocytes and increase in TCD8+ lymphocytes. The changes in TCD3+ and TCD4+ but not in TCD8+ were reversible after 2 months of treatment.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During spermiogenesis, histones are replaced by protamines (P1 and P2), resulting in sperm chromatin condensation followed by a halt to gene expression in haploid spermatids and spermatozoa. As a consequence, protamine deficiency and aberrant P1/P2 ratio have a profound effect on both fertilization and embryo development. However, reports on the effect of the P1/P2 ratio on fertilization and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are contradictory between human and animal studies. The question that still remains to be elucidated is which type of protamine deficiency is most common among protamine deficient samples. The present study has a direct bearing on this issue investigating the correlation of the P1/P2 ratio with protamine deficiency, fertilization, embryo quality and embryo development in ICSI patients. This study was carried out on 71 patients. Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining was used to determine protamine deficiency. Since this procedure does not indicate the type of protamine deficiency, the P1/P2 ratio was evaluated by nuclear protein extraction, acetic acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analysis of protein bands with software. Polyclonal anti-P1 and anti-P2 antibodies were used to confirm P1 and P2 presence. Results show a negative significant correlation of fertilization rate with protamine deficiency and P1/P2 ratio. No significant correlation was observed between protamine deficiency and P1/P2 ratio. Therefore, it can be concluded that altered P1/P2 ratio effects fertilization rate and embryo quality which subsequently may affect implantation and pregnancy outcome.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Reproductive biomedicine online
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The risk of infection by transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably. However, a zero-risk blood supply is still desirable. The screening for antibody to HBc (anti-HBc) has been shown as an alternative test for the detection of HBV infection. Objective: The main aim of this study was to evaluate HBV infection markers and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of blood donors to detect HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood samples were collected and tested for HbsAg using ELISA method. Then all HBsAg negative samples were tested for anti-HBc by the same method. To detect HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR for HBV DNA. Results: All blood samples were HBsAg negative of which, 43 (8%) were anti-HBc positive. From those which were positive for anti-HBc, five samples were also positive for HBV DNA. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection in which HBsAg is not expressed by HBV and blood samples cannot be screened by ELISA method, therefore more sensitive techniques are needed. Our results demonstrate that a complementary test such as PCR, for detecting HBV DNA, is essential to ensure safety of blood samples.