[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We have investigated early programming of body mass in order to understand the multifactorial etiology of obesity. Considering that the renin-angiotensin system is expressed and functional in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and modulates its development, we reasoned whether early transitory inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity after birth could modify late body mass development. Therefore, newborn Wistar rats were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg of body mass) or saline, starting at the first day of life until the age of 16 days. Between days 90th and 180th, a group of these animals received high fat diet (HFD). Molecular, biochemical, histological and physiological data were collected. Enalapril treated animals presented hyperphagia, overweight and increased serum level of triglycerides, total cholesterol and leptin, in adult life. Body composition analyses revealed higher fat mass with increased adipocyte size in these animals. Molecular analyses revealed that enalapril treatment increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression in hypothalamus, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene expression in retroperitoneal WAT and decreases peroxixome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPARα, uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 and UCP3 gene expression in WAT. The results of the current study indicate that enalapril administration during early postnatal development increases body mass, adiposity and serum lipids in adulthood associated with enhanced food intake and decreased metabolic activity in WAT, predisposing to obesity in adulthood.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Frontiers in Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is a multisystem X-linked disorder resulting from α-galactosidase A (α-GalA) gene mutations leading to the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide mainly in endothelium compromising heart, kidney, and brain. In Fabry patients, progressive renal failure is frequently treated with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We were interested in the possible interactions between ACE inhibitors therapy and the only causative therapy for Fabry disease, the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant human α-GalA (rhα-GalA). Our results suggest that ACE activity was significantly inhibited in plasma of Fabry patients and the blood pressure level decreased just after ERT (at the end of the rhα-GalA infusion). Interestingly, 2 weeks later, ACE activity was significantly upregulated and the plasma levels of angiotensin II increased in the patients treated with rhα-GalA following the elevations of ACE activity. The same inhibitory effect on ACE activity was also observed in rats after rhα-GalA infusion. Furthermore, ACE activity in CHO cells transfected with the human ACE was inhibited dose and time-dependently by rhα-GalA. In vitro, the incubation of plasma from healthy volunteers with rhα-GalA significantly reduced ACE activity. Finally, rhα-GalA also inhibited ACE activity and released galactose residues from purified rabbit lung ACE dose-dependently. In summary, our results suggest that rhα-GalA interacts with ACE and inhibits its activity, possibly by removing the galactose residues from the enzyme. This modulation might have profound impact on the clinical outcome of Fabry patients treated with rhα-GalA.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bradykinin (BK) is an active peptide that binds to the kinin B(2) receptor and induces biological events during the development and adult life. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of kinin B(2) receptor ablation in the postnatal skeletal muscle development and body composition in adult life. For studies of skeletal muscle development, control (C57Bl6 - WT) and B(2) receptor knockout mice (B(2)(-/-)) were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90days after birth, the gastrocnemius skeletal muscle was weighed and myostatin gene expression evaluated by real time PCR. For energy balance determination, data from control and B(2)(-/-) at 90 and 120days were collected by calorimetric method. Body composition at 120days was determined by chloroform-methanol (total body fat) and Lowry-modified method (total body protein). The results show that B(2)(-/-) have significantly increased total body weight at 15, 30 and 90days of life, when compared to WT. The weight of the gastrocnemius skeletal muscle was also significantly increased at 30 and 90days of life. Body composition analyses revealed that B(2)(-/-) mice exhibit more total corporal protein and less total corporal fat. Energy balance revealed that B(2)(-/-) have increased metabolizable energy intake and energy expenditure when compared to control mice, resulting in a lower energy gain. Interestingly, myostatin mRNA expression was significantly decreased in 15 and 30days old B(2)(-/-) mice and after icatibant treatment of WT adult mice for 5days. In conclusion, together our results show that kinin B(2) receptor deletion increases lean mass, reduces fat mass and improves metabolism efficiency in mice. The mechanism involved in this phenotype could be related to the reduction of myostatin gene expression during postnatal life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), a common element of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), is involved in myelopoiesis modulation, mainly by cleaving the tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP). Based on this finding and in our results showing B1 and B2 kinin receptors expression in murine bone marrow (BM) cells, we evaluated the ACE influence on myelopoiesis of kinin B1 receptor knockout mice (B1KO) using long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs). Captopril and AcSDKP were used as controls. Enhanced ACE activity, expressed by non-hematopoietic cells (Ter-199(-) and CD45(-)), was observed in B1KO LTBMCs when compared to wild-type (WT) cells. ACE hyperfunction in B1KO cells was maintained when LTBMCs from B1KO mice were treated with captopril (1.0microM) or AcSDKP (1.0nM). Although no alterations were observed in ACE mRNA and protein levels under these culture conditions, 3.0nM of AcSDKP increased ACE mRNA levels in WT LTBMCs. No alteration in the number of GM-CFC was seen in B1KO mice compared to WT animals, even when the former were treated with AcSDKP (10microg/kg) or captopril (100mg/kg) for 4 consecutive days. Hematological data also revealed no differences between WT and B1KO mice under basal conditions. When the animals received 4 doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a decreased number of blood cells was detected in B1KO mice in relation to WT. We also found a decreased percentage of Gr1(+)/Mac-1(+), Ter119(+), B220(+), CD3(+), and Lin(-)Sca1(+)c-Kit(+) (LSK) cells in the BM of B1KO mice compared to WT animals. Low AcSDKP levels were observed in BM cultures from B1KO in comparison to WT cultures. We conclude that ACE hyperfunction in B1KO mice resulted in faster hydrolysis of AcSDKP peptide, which in turn decreased in BM tissues allowing HSC to enter the S stage of the cell cycle.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Leptin-deficient mice (Lep(ob)/Lep(ob), also known as ob/ob) are of great importance for studies of obesity, diabetes and other correlated pathologies. Thus, generation of animals carrying the Lep(ob) gene mutation as well as additional genomic modifications has been used to associate genes with metabolic diseases. However, the infertility of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice impairs this kind of breeding experiment.
To propose a new method for production of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) animals and Lep(ob)/Lep(ob)-derived animal models by restoring the fertility of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice in a stable way through white adipose tissue transplantations.
For this purpose, 1 g of peri-gonadal adipose tissue from lean donors was used in subcutaneous transplantations of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) animals and a crossing strategy was established to generate Lep(ob)/Lep(ob)-derived mice.
The presented method reduced by four times the number of animals used to generate double transgenic models (from about 20 to 5 animals per double mutant produced) and minimized the number of genotyping steps (from 3 to 1 genotyping step, reducing the number of Lep gene genotyping assays from 83 to 6).
The application of the adipose transplantation technique drastically improves both the production of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) animals and the generation of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob)-derived animal models.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · International journal of obesity (2005)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system is involved in homeostasis processes linked to renal and cardiovascular system and recently has been linked to metabolic syndrome. We analyzed the influence of long term angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril treatment in normotensive adult Wistar rats fed with standard or palatable hyperlipidic diets. Our results show that long term enalapril treatment decreases absolute food intake, serum leptin concentration and body weight gain. Moreover, in adipose tissue, enalapril treatment led to decreased ACE activity, enhanced the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, adiponectin, hormone-sensitive lipase, fatty acid synthase, catalase and superoxide dismutase resulting in prolonged life span. On the other hand, the ACE inhibitor was not able to improve the transport of leptin through the blood brain barrier or to alter the sensitivity of this hormone in the central nervous system. The effect of enalapril in decreasing body weight gain was also observed in older rats. In summary, these results extend our previous findings and corroborate data from the literature regarding the beneficial metabolic effects of enalapril and show for the first time that this ACE inhibitor prolongs life span in rats also fed with palatable hyperlipidic diet, an action probably correlated with adipose tissue metabolic modulation and body weight reduction.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Biochemical pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Kallikrein-kinin system exerts cardioprotective effects against pathological hypertrophy. These effects are modulated mainly via B2 receptor activation. Chronic physical exercise can induce physiological cardiac hypertrophy characterized by normal organization of cardiac structure. Therefore, the aim of this work was to verify the influence of kinin B2 receptor deletion on physiological hypertrophy to exercise stimulus. Animals were submitted to swimming practice for 5 min or for 60 min, 5 days a week, during 1 month and several cardiac parameters were evaluated. Results showed no significantly difference in heart weight between both groups, however an increased left ventricle weight and myocyte diameter were observed after the 60 min swimming protocol, which was more pronounced in B2(-/-) mice. In addition, sedentary B2(-/-) animals presented higher left ventricle mass when compared to wild-type (WT) mice. An increase in capillary density was observed in exercised animals, however the effect was less pronounced in B2(-/-) mice. Collagen, a marker of pathological hypertrophy, was increased in B2(-/-) mice submitted to swimming protocol, as well as left ventricular thickness, suggesting that these animals do not respond with physiological hypertrophy for this kind of exercise. In conclusion, our data suggest an important role for the kinin B2 receptor in physiological cardiac hypertrophy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · International Immunopharmacology