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ABSTRACT: Studies indicate that implants placed at the time of extraction have high success rates. Implants must be stable at the time of insertion. Presently there are no data indicating the degree of implant stability when implants are placed at the time of extraction. This study evaluated changes in stability of implants from implant placement to abutment connection utilizing resonance frequency analysis (RFA). The unit of measurement was the international stability quotient (ISQ). Prior to treatment, patients were given medical history and dental evaluations. Periapical and panogram radiographs were taken. Fifty-two patients requiring extraction of one or two teeth and implant placement immediately after extraction were enrolled in this study. Under conscious sedation and local anesthesia or local anesthesia alone, teeth were atraumatically removed and the extraction sockets were debrided. A total of 73 dental implants (57 in the maxilla, 16 in the mandible) were placed. Using a one-stage approach, all implants were placed within the patient's alveolar envelope and were never placed directly into extraction sockets. All implants were placed into contained extraction sites. Bone augmentation procedures were not performed. After implant insertion, the RFA electronic transducer was attached to the head of the implant with the retaining screw. The device was attached to a computer designed to register RFA scores in ISQ units. RFA measurements were taken at implant placement and abutment connection. Bone qualities, quantity, implant length and width as well as site of placement were recorded. The average interval between implant insertion and abutment connection was 5.6 months (SD 2.05). Two implants were lost between implant insertion and 1 year. At 2 to 3 years, the cumulative survival was 97.2%. Resonance frequency measurements at implant placement showed a mean primary stability of 62.0 (SE 1.1; range 43 to 83 ISQ) and a mean secondary stability after 1 year of 64.0 (SE 1.2; range 40 to 98 ISQ) for all implants. The increase was marginally significant (generalized estimating equation z-statistic = 1.79; P value = 0.07). Implants placed at the time of extraction and inserted into native bone and not directly into extractions sockets have a high degree of initial stability as evidenced by RFA measurements. Implants with initial high ISQ levels revealed a slight drop in levels over time, while implants with levels lower than 60 had increases in levels between implant insertion and abutment connection. At 2 to 3 years the cumulative survival rate was 97.2%.
University of San FranciscoSan Francisco, California, United States