[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence of kidney injury and acute renal dysfunction (ARD) and associated risk factors in open abdominal aortic surgery.
69 patients undergoing elective infrarenal aortic repair were included in a prospective study. Anaesthesia and haemodynamic management were standardised targeting a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 70-90 mmHg, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure of 12-14 mmHg and cardiac index >or=2.4 l/min/m(2). Urinary albumin-creatinine and N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase-creatinine ratios were measured as indicators of kidney injury. The definition of ARD was based on the RIFLE criteria.
Kidney injury was found in most patients. ARD developed in 22% of the patients, and acute renal failure in 4%. The patients with ARD were older, and had lower plasma creatinine and estimated GFR before surgery. ARD was associated with intraoperative hypotension (MAP <60 mmHg >15 min), low cardiac index (<2.4 l/min/m(2)), rhabdomyolysis, and early reoperation. Intraoperative hypotension and postoperative low cardiac output were independent risk factors for ARD in multivariate analysis.
Kidney injury occurs in most patients undergoing infrarenal aortic surgery, but only 22% develop acute renal dysfunction. Hypotension and low cardiac output are risk factors that could be avoided by optimizing perioperative management.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial we studied the effects of IV N-acetylcysteine for prevention of renal injury in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. Seventy patients without previously documented renal dysfunction were randomly allocated to receive either N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg mixed in 250 mL of 5% dextrose infused in 20 min, followed by an infusion of 150 mg/kg in 250 mL of 5% dextrose over 24 h) or placebo. The infusion was started after the induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome measure was renal injury as measured by the increases in urinary N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG)/creatinine ratio (indicator of renal tubular injury) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (indicator of glomerular injury). Renal function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and serum cystatin C concentrations. The urinary NAG/creatinine ratio increased significantly from baseline to before crossclamp and remained increased on day 5 in both groups. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio increased significantly from baseline to 6 h after declamping in the N-acetylcysteine group. However, the changes in the NAG/creatinine ratio and the albumin/creatinine ratio were not significantly different between the two groups. Plasma creatinine and serum cystatin C values remained unchanged during the study period in both groups. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine did not offer any significant protection from renal injury during elective aortic operation in patients with normal preoperative renal function, and some degree of tubular injury seems to occur before aortic crossclamp.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Anesthesia and analgesia