[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of arterial disease. We investigated the role of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the development of myocardial infarction (MI) by genotyping patients with MI and control subjects for the -589C>T (rs2243250) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which tags a functional haplotype of IL-4.
Study of Myocardial Infarctions Leiden (SMILE) included 560 men with a first MI and 646 control subjects. The Valencia study included 305 patients with MI at <or=52 years (men and women) and 310 control subjects. In SMILE no clear overall association with the -589C>T genotype was found [odds ratio (OR) 0.84; 95% CI 0.37-1.95 for -589TT and 0.82; 95% CI 0.62-1.07 for -589CT compared with -589CC]. In patients younger than 50 years, carriership of one or two -589T alleles was associated with a reduced risk of MI (OR 0.57: 95% CI 0.34-0.95). This result was replicated in the Valencia study, where carriers of one or two -589T alleles had a reduced risk of MI (OR 0.67: 95% CI 0.47-0.95), with a strong protective effect of the -598T allele in homozygous -589T (OR 0.33: 95% CI 0.10-1.05). In the control subjects of the Valencia study, the -589T allele was associated with reduced levels of F1+2.
Our data indicate that the IL-4 haplotype tagged by the -589T allele reduces the risk of MI in young individuals.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is considered a to be multifactorial disease driven by inflammatory reactions. The process of inflammation also contributes to the pathogenesis of acute atherothrombotic events. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein and its concentration in serum reflects the inflammatory condition of the patient. Levels of CRP are consistently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and predict myocardial infarctions and stroke. Since CRP is present in the atherosclerotic lesion, it may actively contribute to the progression and/or instability of the atherosclerotic plaque. The role of CRP in inflammation and its causality in atherosclerosis are the subject of many investigations but are not yet fully elucidated. This review focuses on recently identified mechanisms by which CRP may modulate and evolve the process of atherosclerosis. We discuss the function of CRP and review the most recent evidence for an independent role of CRP in the development of atherosclerosis. Many studies suggest such a role, but a number of the described effects may be the result of contamination of the CRP preparations.
Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Cardiovascular Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally assumed that C-reactive protein (CRP) induces synthesis of tissue factor (TF) in monocytic cells, thereby potentially initiating intravascular blood coagulation. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of CRP-induced TF expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in vitro.
Monocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and cultured with or without CRP or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to study the time course of TF antigen and TF mRNA expression. Addition of 100 microg/mL CRP did not result in a significant increase in TF antigen (range: 9 to 163 pg/10(6) cells, n=11) and TF mRNA (relative number of TF transcripts; N(TF)=0.01 to 0.33), when compared with nonstimulated cells (TF antigen 7 to 46 pg/10(6) cells, N(TF)=0.01 to 0.13). Variation of CRP concentration and exposure time did not affect the TF response. Similar results were obtained in monocytes cultured in suspension and in MDMs. In contrast, TF was strongly induced by 10 microg/mL LPS (TF antigen 1125 to 6120 pg/10(6) cells, N(TF)=5.94 to 23.43). Cultured monocytes did express FcRgammaII, a putative CRP receptor, and addition of CRP induced a 7-fold increase in the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Interestingly, CRP addition to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) did result in TF expression on monocytic cells.
The absence of TF induction after incubation of purified monocytes with CRP indicates that CRP is unable to induce TF expression in monocytes and MDMs directly. The presence of CRP-induced TF expression in PBMCs suggests that CRP can induce TF indirectly, probably through cross-talk between cells.
Preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology