Dawn M Young

Saint Louis University, Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States

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Publications (2)8.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An early event in the pathogenesis of emphysema is the development of inflammation associated with accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in small airways, and inflammatory cell recruitment from the circulation involves migration across endothelial and epithelial cell barriers. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) promotes transendothelial migration in several vascular beds, and we postulated that increased PAF production in the airways of smokers might enhance inflammatory cell recruitment and exacerbate inflammation. To examine this possibility, we incubated human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and found that CSE inhibits PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity. This enhances HMVEC-L PAF production and PMN adherence, and adherence is blocked by PAF receptor antagonists (CV3988 or ginkgolide B). CSE also inhibited PAF-AH activity of lung endothelial cells isolated from wild-type (WT) and iPLA(2)β knockout mice, and with WT cells, CSE enhanced PAF production and RAW 264.7 cell adherence. In contrast, CSE did not affect PAF production or RAW 264.7 cell adherence to iPLA(2)β-null cells, suggesting that iPLA(2)β plays an important role in PAF production by lung endothelial cells. These findings suggest that inhibition of PAF-AH by components of cigarette smoke may initiate or exacerbate inflammatory lung disease by enhancing PAF production and promoting accumulation of inflammatory cells in small airways. In addition, iPLA(2)β is identified as a potential target for therapeutic interventions to reduce airway inflammation and the progression of chronic lung disease.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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    Prerna Rastogi · Dawn M Young · Jane McHowat
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    ABSTRACT: Human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEC) form the boundary between the external environmental allergens and the internal lung milieu. Mast cells are present in human lung tissue interspersed within the pulmonary epithelium and can secrete a host of pre- and newly formed mediators from their granules, which may propagate small airway inflammation. In this study, tryptase stimulation of HSAEC increased membrane-associated, calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)gamma (iPLA(2)gamma) activity, resulting in increased arachidonic acid and PGE(2) release. These responses were inhibited by pretreating HSAEC with the iPLA(2)-selective inhibitor bromoenol lactone. The tryptase-stimulated PGE(2) production was inhibited by treating HSAEC with the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1-selective inhibitor SC-560 and the nonselective COX inhibitor aspirin but not by the COX-2-selective inhibitor CAY10404, indicating that the early release of arachidonic acid is metabolized by constitutive COX-1 to form PGE(2) in tryptase-stimulated HSAEC. Additionally, platelet-activating factor production and neutrophil adherence to tryptase-stimulated HSAEC was also increased. This complex response can set up a cascade of inflammatory mediator production in small airways. We speculate that selective inhibition of iPLA(2)gamma-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis may prove beneficial in inflammatory airway diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology