[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis continues causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although its epidemiology has been studied in many developed countries, the current pertussis situation in South America is scarcely known. This review summarizes the most important recent data concerning pertussis in a country of South America, Argentina.
CDC criteria were used for pertussis diagnosis. Proportion of pertussis cases by age, immunization status, and immunization coverage rate evaluated at the Argentinean National Pertussis Reference Centers was reported. Bordetella pertussis isolates were characterized and compared with vaccine strains.
From 2002 to nowadays, a steady increase of pertussis cases was observed. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than six months old that received less than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Argentina, several explanations have been proposed. Among them, the inability of current vaccines to induce long-lasting immunity is the most widely accepted as a cause of pertussis resurgence. Furthermore, antigenic divergence between local clinical isolates and vaccine strains may have aggravated the effect of waning immunity.
Pertussis is an important problem for public health in Argentina. Divergence between vaccine strains and local isolates could contribute to the described pertussis epidemiology.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · The Journal of infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In all, 1,702 unselected pregnant women from the city of La Plata were tested for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and evaluated to determine GDM prevalence and risk factors. In women with GDM, we evaluated compliance with guidelines for GDM management, and perinatal complications attributable to GDM. GDM prevalence was 5.8%, and its risk factors were pre-gestational obesity, previous hyperglycaemia, age > 30 years, previous GDM (and its surrogate markers). In primi-gravida (PG) subjects, GDM was equally prevalent in the presence (4.2%) or absence (4.0%) of risk factors. In multi-gravida (MG) women, although risk factors doubled the prevalence of GDM (8.6%), in the absence of risk factors GDM prevalence was similar to that of PG women (3.9%). Half of all women with GDM received inadequate post-diagnosis obstetric control, and this induced a fourfold increase in infant perinatal complications. In conclusion, all non-hyperglycaemic 24-28-week pregnant women should be tested for GDM, although particular attention must be paid to MG women with risk factors.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Acta Diabetologica