- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the maximum tolerated dose of lonafarnib, a novel farnesyltransferase inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel in patients with solid tumors and to characterize the safety, tolerability, dose-limiting toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of this combination regimen. In a Phase I trial, lonafarnib was administered p.o., twice daily (b.i.d.) on continuously scheduled doses of 100 mg, 125 mg, and 150 mg in combination with i.v. paclitaxel at doses of 135 mg/m(2) or 175 mg/m(2) administered over 3 h on day 8 of every 21-day cycle. Plasma paclitaxel and lonafarnib concentrations were collected at selected time points from each patient. Twenty-four patients were enrolled; 21 patients were evaluable. The principal grade 3/4 toxicity was diarrhea (5 of 21 patients), which was most likely due to lonafarnib. dose-limiting toxicities included grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia at dose level 3 (100 mg b.i.d. lonafarnib and 175 mg/m(2) paclitaxel); grade 4 diarrhea and grade 3 peripheral neuropathy at dose level 3A (125 mg b.i.d. lonafarnib and 175 mg/m(2) paclitaxel); and grade 4 neutropenia with fever and grade 4 diarrhea at level 4 (150 mg b.i.d. lonafarnib and 175 mg/m(2) paclitaxel). The maximum tolerated dose established by the continual reassessment method was lonafarnib 100 mg b.i.d. and paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2). Paclitaxel appeared to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lonafarnib. The median duration of therapy was eight cycles, including seven cycles with paclitaxel. Six of 15 previously treated patients had a durable partial response, including 3 patients who had previous taxane therapy. Notably, two of five patients with taxane-resistant metastatic non-small cell lung cancer had partial responses. When combined with paclitaxel, the recommended dose of lonafarnib for Phase II trials is 100 mg p.o. twice daily with 175 mg/m(2) of paclitaxel i.v. every 3 weeks. Additional studies of lonafarnib in combination regimens appear warranted, particularly in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rIFN-alpha2b) is an effective therapy for chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Polyethylene glycol-modified rIFN-alpha2b is a novel formulation with a serum half-life ( approximately 40 h) compatible with once-weekly dosing. This open-label, noninferiority trial randomized 344 newly diagnosed CML patients: 171 received subcutaneous pegylated rIFN-alpha2b (6 microg/kg/week); 173 received rIFN-alpha2b (5 million International Units/m2/day). Primary efficacy end point was the 12-month major cytogenetic response (MCR) rate (<35% Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells). Modified efficacy analysis included all MCRs >12 months, except for patients discontinuing treatment after 6 months and achieving an MCR on other salvage therapy. The MCR rates were 23% for pegylated rIFN-alpha2b vs 28% for rIFN-alpha2b in the primary efficacy analysis and 26 vs 28% in the prospectively modified efficacy analysis. However, a significant imbalance in baseline hematocrit (HCT), a significant predictor of cytogenetic response (P=0.0001), was discovered: 51 (30%) patients treated with pegylated rIFN-alpha2b had low HCT (<33%) vs 33 (19%) rIFN-alpha2b-treated patients. Among patients with HCT >33%, the MCR rate was 33 vs 31%. The adverse event profile of weekly pegylated rIFN-alpha2b was comparable to daily rIFN-alpha2b. Once-weekly pegylated rIFN-alpha2b is an active agent for the treatment of newly diagnosed CML with an efficacy and safety profile similar to daily rIFN-alpha2b, although statistical noninferiority was not demonstrated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of interferon alfa has been established in treating advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. We conducted a phase I/II study to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), the safety and tolerability, and the preliminary efficacy of once-weekly pegylated interferon alfa-2b (IFNalpha-2b) in patients with advanced solid tumors (primarily RCC). To determine the MTD, 35 patients with a variety of advanced solid tumors received 0.75 to 7.5 micro g/kg/wk of pegylated IFNalpha-2b by subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks. An additional 35 previously untreated RCC patients received 6.0 and 7.5 micro g/kg/wk for up to 12 weeks. Patients with a response or stable disease after 12 weeks were eligible for the extension protocol and were treated for up to 1 year or until disease progression. The MTD for pegylated IFNalpha-2b at 12 weeks was 6.0 micro g/kg/wk. One year of 6.0 micro g/kg/wk was well tolerated with appropriate dose modification; no grade 3 or 4 fatigue occurred, and safety was comparable with that with nonpegylated IFNalpha-2b. The most common nonhematologic adverse events included mild to moderate nausea, anorexia, and fatigue. Six patients had grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity. Twenty-nine patients continued on the extension protocol. Four patients had a complete response, and five patients had a partial response. Among 44 previously untreated RCC patients, the objective response rate was 14%. Median survival for all RCC patients was 13.2 months. Pegylated IFNalpha-2b was active and well tolerated in patients with metastatic solid tumors, including RCC, at doses up to 6.0 micro g/kg/wk.
Article: Treating cancer with PEG Intron[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PEG Intron (pegylated interferon-alpha-2b [IFN-alpha-2b]; Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) has demonstrated delayed clearance and increased area under the curve compared with native IFN-alpha-2b. Studies in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and malignancies have demonstrated both biologic and clinical activity of PEG Intron and have provided empiric data to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of PEG Intron and IFN-alpha-2b. The authors conducted a review of the available data comparing the PK and pharmacodynamic effects of PEG Intron and IFN-alpha-2b. Safety and efficacy data from Phase I/II studies of PEG Intron in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and solid tumors were also reviewed. Data from patients with chronic hepatitis C infection suggest that exposure to IFN at a PEG Intron dose of 0.25 microg/kg per week is similar to that observed after administration of IFN-alpha-2b at a dose of 3 million International Units, three times per week. PEG Intron at doses up to 6 microg/kg per week was well tolerated and demonstrated clinical activity in patients with CML and solid tumors, including metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Dose intensification can be achieved safely in patients with CML and solid tumors using PEG Intron, which could improve efficacy. These results provide useful dosing guidelines to clinicians investigating the antitumor activity of PEG Intron in patients with malignancies. More data are needed to determine the optimal dose in various oncologic indications. However, these results provide a sound rationale for further investigation of PEG Intron.