[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hemostatic resuscitation with a 1:1 ratio of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) to packed red blood cells (PRBC) after severe hemorrhage has been shown to improve survival, its benefit in patients with traumatic-induced coagulopathy (TIC) after >10 units of PRBC during operation has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that a survival benefit would occur when early hemostatic resuscitation was used intraoperatively after injury in patients with TIC.
A 7-year retrospective study of patients with emergency department diagnosis of TIC after transfusion of >10 units of PRBC in the operating room. TIC was defined as initial emergency department international normalized ratio > 1.2, prothrombin time > 16 seconds, and partial thromboplastin time > 50 seconds. Patients were divided into FFP:PRBC ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. Patients with diagnosis of TIC who received transfusion of both FFP and PRBC during surgery were included. Other variables evaluated included age, gender, mechanism of injury, initial base deficit, mean operative time, trauma intensive care unit length of stay (TICU LOS) and Injury Severity Score. The primary outcome measure evaluated was the impact of the early FFP:PRBC ratio on mortality.
Four hundred thirty-five patients underwent emergency operations postinjury and received FFP with >10 units of PRBC in the operating room; 135 (31.0%) of these patients had TIC and 53 died (39.5% mortality). Mean operative time was 137 minutes (SD +/- 49). There were no differences with regard to age, gender, mechanism of injury, initial base deficit, or Injury Severity Score among all groups. A significant difference in mortality was found in patients who received >10 units of PRBC when FFP:PRBC ratio was 1:1 versus 1:4 (28.2% vs. 51.1%, p = 0.03). Intermediate mortality rates were noted in patients with 1:2 and 1:3 ratios (38% and 40%, respectively). From a linear regression model, 13 days of increased TICU LOS was observed among 1:4 group compared with 1:1 group (p < 0.01).
TIC is common after severe injury and is associated with a high mortality in patients transfused with >10 units of PRBC during surgery. Early hemostatic resuscitation during first hours after injury improves survival with shorter TICU LOS in patients with TIC.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of trauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in critically injured trauma patients. We hypothesized that obese patients in need of damage control laparotomy (DCL) will encounter an increase incidence of postsurgical complications with a concomitant increase mortality when compared with a cohort of nonobese patients.
All adult trauma patients who underwent DCL during a 4-year period at a Level I Trauma Center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized into nonobese (body mass index [BMI] < or = 29 kg/m), obese (BMI 30-39 kg/m), and severely obese (BMI > or = 40 kg/m) groups. Outcome measures included the occurrence of postoperative infectious complications, failure of primary abdominal wall fascial closure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal insufficiency, multiple system organ failure, days of ventilator support, hospital length of stay, and death.
During a 4-year period, 12,759 adult trauma patients were admitted to our Level I Trauma Center of which 1,812 (14.2%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Of these, 104 (5.7%) were treated with DCL: nonobese, n = 51 (49%); obese, n = 38 (37%); and severely obese, n = 15 (14%). In a multivariate adjusted model, multiple system organ failure was 1.82 times more likely in severely obese (95% CI: 1.14-2.90) and 1.74 times more likely in the obese patients (95% CI: 1.14-2.66) when compared with patients with normal BMI after DCL (p < 0.01). In the severely obese patients undergoing DCL, significantly elevated prevalence ratios (PR) for development of postoperative infectious complications, acute renal insufficiency, and failure of primary abdominal wall fascial closure were 1.75, 3.07, and 2.62, respectively. Days of ventilator support, length of stay, and mortality rates were significantly higher in severely obese patients (24 days, 27 days, and 60%) compared with obese (14 days, 14 days, and 21%) and nonobese (9.8 days, 14 days, and 28%) patients.
Severe obesity was significantly associated with adverse outcomes and increased resource utilization in trauma patients treated with DCL. Measures to improve outcomes in this vulnerable patient population must be directed at multiple levels of health care.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of trauma