C Picquet

Catholic University of Louvain, Walloon Region, Belgium

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Publications (3)15.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The human endometrium is a unique tissue that is periodically shed during menstruation. Although overall triggered by ovarian steroids withdrawal, menstrual induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and resulting tissue breakdown are focal responses, pointing to additional local modulators. LEFTY-A, a novel member of the transforming growth factor-β family identified originally as an endometrialbleeding-associated factor (EBAF), is a candidate for this local control. We measuredLEFTY-A and β-ACTIN mRNA concentration during the menstrual cycle in vivo and found that their ratio was dramatically (∼100-fold) increased at the perimenstrual phase. A similar increase was seen when proliferative explants were cultured for 24 h in the absence of ovarian steroids; this was followed by spontaneous production of proMMP-1, -3, and -9. Both responses were inhibited by progesterone. Moreover, addition of recombinant LEFTY-A to proliferative explants was sufficient to stimulate the expression of proMMP-3 and -7; this response was also blocked by ovarian steroids. Collectively, these data indicate that LEFTY-A may provide a crucial signal for endometrial breakdown and bleeding by triggering expression of several MMPs. Progesterone appears to exert a dual block, upstream by inhibiting LEFTY-A expression and downstream by suppressing its stimulatory effect on MMPs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of irregular endometrial bleeding, the main reason for stopping contraception with progestins only, is unknown. Based on the recent reappraisal of the mechanisms of menstrual bleeding, we hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinases initiate this disorder. Volunteers upon Norplant treatment provided endometrial biopsies at the start of a bleeding episode and during nonbleeding intervals. Focal stromal breakdown, collagen fiber lysis, and collagenase-1 messenger ribonucleic acid were evidenced in most bleeding endometria, but never in the nonbleeding ones. In the breaking down areas, immunolabeling for gelatinase A was strongly increased, and that of progesterone and estrogen receptors was decreased. Explants from bleeding endometria produced high collagenase and gelatinase activities, whereas release from nonbleeding endometria was negligible. Bleeding endometria released more latent and active forms of collagenase-1 and active gelatinases A and B, but less tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, than nonbleeding endometria. Collagenase-1 release closely correlated with that of interleukin-1alpha. In contrast, N:-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 were similarly released in both groups. Thus, endometrial bleeding occurs together with focal stromal breakdown, collagen lysis, expression and activation of several matrix metalloproteinases, and decreased production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. These results may lead to new pharmacological treatment of this common medical problem.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2001 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Unpredictable endometrial bleeding is the major side-effect of levonorgestrel-releasing s.c. implants (Norplant®), otherwise a method of choice for long-term contraception. The mechanisms responsible for bleeding are still unknown and no reliable treatment is available. Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are expressed and activated in human endometrium only at menstruation and specific synthetic inhibitors of MMP fully prevent the tissue breakdown that occurs in menstrual-like endometrial explants. To investigate whether MMP are inappropriately expressed and activated in Norplant-treated endometria during bleeding episodes, volunteers were recruited to provide blood and endometrial biopsies at the start of bleeding episodes and during non-bleeding intervals. Whereas serum concentrations of levonorgestrel and sex hormones showed nochange at bleeding, except for a slight decrease of oestradiol concentration, the expression and activation of stromelysin-1 released by explants cultured for 1 day were consistently increased at the start of bleeding episodes. Furthermore, stromelysin-1 was immunolocalized in stromal cells within breakdown areas of several bleeding endometria, but not in non-bleeding endometria. These observations suggest that the expression and activation of stromelysin-1 participate in the initiation of bleeding episodes upon Norplant contraception. New strategies in the prevention and treatment of abnormal bleeding based nMMP control should be envisaged.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2000 · Human Reproduction