Christina A. Gougoutas

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (8)27.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Surgical resection of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with stage IV disease at initial presentation remains controversial. Although bowel resection to manage symptoms such as bleeding, perforation, or obstruction has been advocated, management of asymptomatic patients has not been well defined. Patient-dependent factors (performance status, comorbid disease) and extent of distant metastases are among the considerations that impact on the decision to proceed with surgical management in asymptomatic stage IV CRC patients. We postulated that selected patients might benefit from elective resection of the asymptomatic primary CRC. The extent of distant metastases was objectively measured by several methods to identify potential prognostic variables that may help guide patient selection in this population. We reviewed hospital and colorectal service databases for the years 1996 to 1999. Stage IV patients who had colorectal resections with gross residual metastatic disease were identified (n = 209). Among these 209 patients, 82 patients operated on for symptoms (obstruction, perforation, bleeding, or pain) were excluded, leaving 127 patients who underwent elective resection of their asymptomatic primary CRC. Over the same time period, 103 stage IV patients who did not undergo resection were identified. Data on patient characteristics and clinical management were collected. A radiologist performed an independent review of available CT scans to assess extent of liver disease. The chi-square test was used for analysis of categoric data and Student's t-test for continuous variables. Survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method and distributions compared by the log rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression. The resected group could be easily distinguished from the nonresected group by a higher frequency of right colon cancers (p = 0.03) and metastatic disease restricted to the liver (p = 0.02) or one other site apart from the primary tumor (p = 0.02). Resected patients had prolonged median (16 versus 9 months, p < 0.001) and 2-year (25% versus 6%, p < 0.001) survival compared with patients never resected. Univariate analysis identified three significant prognostic variables (number of distant sites involved, metastases to liver only, and volume of hepatic replacement by tumor) in the resected group. Volume of hepatic replacement was also a significant predictor of survival in Cox multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.01). Subsequent to resection of asymptomatic primary CRC, 26 patients (20%) developed postoperative complications. Median hospital stay was 6 days. Two patients (1.6%) died within 30 days of surgery. Stage IV patients selected for elective palliative resection of asymptomatic primary colorectal cancers had substantial postoperative survival that was significantly better than those never having resection. Limited metastatic tumor burden and less extensive liver involvement were associated with better survival and a higher likelihood of benefit from elective bowel resection in asymptomatic patients with incurable stage IV CRC.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the accuracy of spiral computed tomography (CT) in the depiction of peritoneal metastases by using surgical findings in patients with ovarian cancer as the standard of reference. Three independent readers reviewed the preoperative CT scans obtained in 64 patients who underwent primary surgery for ovarian cancer. Readers rated the likelihood of peritoneal metastases on a five-point scale and recorded the presence or absence of ascites, parietal peritoneal thickening or enhancement, and small-bowel wall thickening or distortion. Peritoneal metastases were identified as nodular, plaquelike, or infiltrative soft-tissue lesions in the peritoneal fat or on the peritoneal surface. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated for each reader. Interreader agreement was evaluated with the kappa statistic. Descriptive statistical data were determined with dichotomized ratings (1-3 = absent; 4-5 = present). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the three readers were 0.95, 0.93, and 0.89. Paired kappa values ranged from 0.75 to 0.91. Reader sensitivity for metastases 1 cm or smaller in maximum diameter (25%-50%) was significantly (P <.05) lower than overall sensitivity (85%-93%). Ascites, parietal peritoneal thickening or enhancement, and small-bowel wall thickening or distortion demonstrated positive predictive values of 72%-93%, with kappa values of 0.12-0.80. Spiral CT is accurate in the depiction of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer, although sensitivity is reduced in patients with tumor implants 1 cm or smaller. Ancillary signs of peritoneal malignancy are limited by low interobserver agreement.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Radiology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of, and cost of diagnosing with, different breast biopsy methods for women with calcifications highly suggestive of malignancy. One hundred thirty-nine women with calcifications highly suggestive of malignancy underwent diagnostic biopsy. Of these, 89 women had stereotactic biopsy with a 14-gauge automated needle (n = 25), 14-gauge vacuum-assisted probe (n = 17), or 11-gauge vacuum-assisted probe (n = 47); and 50 women had diagnostic surgical biopsy. Medical records were reviewed. Cost savings for stereotactic biopsy were calculated using Medicare data. The median number of operations was one for women who had stereotactic biopsy versus two for women who had diagnostic surgical biopsy. The likelihood of undergoing a single operation was significantly greater for women who had stereotactic rather than surgical biopsy, among all women (61/89 [68.5%] vs. 19/50 [38.0%], p < 0.001) and among women treated for breast cancer (55/77 [71.4%] vs. 6/37 [16.2%], p = 0.0000001). Stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy, as compared with 14-gauge automated core or 14-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy, was significantly more likely to spare a surgical procedure (36/47 [76.6%] vs. 16/42 [38.1%], p = 0.0005). Stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy resulted in the greatest cost reduction, yielding savings of $315 per case compared with diagnostic surgical biopsy; for women with solitary lesions, stereotactic 11-gauge biopsy decreased the cost of diagnosis by 22.2% ($334/$1502). For women with calcifications highly suggestive of malignancy, the use of stereotactic rather than surgical biopsy decreases the number of operations. Stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy, as compared with 14-gauge automated core or 14-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy, is significantly more likely to spare a surgical procedure and has the highest cost savings.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · American Journal of Roentgenology
  • CA Gougoutas · E S Siegelman · J Hunt · E K Outwater

    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · American Journal of Roentgenology
  • Christina A. Gougoutas · Evan S. Siegelman · Jennifer Hunt · Eric K. Outwater

    No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · American Journal of Roentgenology
  • John H. M. Austin · Christina A. Gougoutas · Larry L. Schulman
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to assess whether gastroparesis, as a chronic complication of lung transplantation, correlates with height of the gastric air bubble on chest radiographs of erect fasting subjects. Height of the gastric air bubble and presence or absence of a gastric air-fluid level were assessed on chest radiographic examinations (posteroanterior, lateral, upright position, during fasting, immediately after bronchoscopy, median 148 days after transplantation) obtained on 3 separate days for each of 19 recipients of lung transplantation. Seven of the subjects (five women, two men) had chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms after transplantation and a confirmed diagnosis of gastroparesis. The gastroparesis was idiopathic in six of the subjects and associated with cytomegalovirus gastritis in one subject. The other 12 subjects, each without upper gastrointestinal symptoms, served as controls. Median height of the gastric air bubble was significantly less in the gastroparetic (2.8 cm; range, 1.0-4.6 cm) than in the control (4.7 cm; range, 1.0-12.4 cm) group (p<0.05). Height of the gastric air bubble was at most 4.6 cm among the seven gastroparetic subjects, whereas it exceeded 5.0 cm on at least one occasion in 8 (67%) of the 12 control subjects (p<0.005). The likelihood of a gastric air-fluid level was 86% for symptomatic subjects and 25% for the control group (p<0.01). When lung transplantation is complicated by chronic gastroparesis, postbronchoscopic chest radiographic examinations of fasting subjects are associated with a gastric air bubble limited to high in the fundus, usually including a fluid level.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Journal of Thoracic Imaging
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    C Gougoutas · M S Levine · I Laufer

    Preview · Article · Sep 1998 · American Journal of Roentgenology