Chris H Takimoto

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (158)1090.01 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To characterize the determinants of variability for oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics including age, renal function, and hepatic function in children and adults. Methods: Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic data were combined from phase I and II clinical trials: three pediatric trials (Peds1-3) and two adult NCI organ dysfunction studies (Hepatic and Renal). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed utilizing platinum ultrafiltrate concentrations to characterize changes in oxaliplatin disposition with age and organ dysfunction along with other potential sources of oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic variability. Results: A total of 1,508 concentrations from 186 children and adults were used in the study. The data were well described by a three-compartment model. Serum creatinine (SCR) was an independent predictor of clearance (CL) while age was an independent predictor of volume of distribution. Although age was a significant covariate on CL in the univariate analysis, age effects on CL were entirely accounted for by SCR. Gender, hepatic function, and race had no effect on CL or volume of distribution. Median CL values were 0.58 (Hepatic), 0.34 (Renal), 0.78 (Peds1), 0.74 (Peds2), and 0.81 (Peds3) (L/h/kg(0.75)). Monte Carlo simulations of the final model with 130 mg/m(2) yielded median AUC values of: 14.2 (2-6 years), 16.8 (6-12 years), 16.5 (12-18 years), and 17.3 (>18 years) (µg h/mL). Conclusions: Renal function had the greatest effect on CL with a small age effect seen on the distribution of oxaliplatin. Young pediatric patients had higher CL values than adults as a result of better renal function.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: BIIB021 is the first oral, synthetic, non-geldanamycin based HSP90 inhibitor that showed activity in pre-clinical models at low nanomolar concentrations. We performed a Phase 1 trial of BIIB021 administered to subjects with advanced solid tumors. Sixty patients received BIIB021 capsules orally on Days 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, and 18 of each course in Schedule 1, and on Days 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, and 25 of each course in Schedule 2. The treatment schedules were repeated every 28 days. In addition to determining the MTD, we evaluated pharmacokinetics of BIIB021 and pharmacodynamic effects of BIIB021 (Hsp70, HER2 extra-cellular domain [HER2-ECD]). The MTD was 700 mg twice weekly when BIIB021 was dosed for 3 weeks out of each 4-week course. The MTD for continuous dosing regimen was established at 600 mg twice weekly. Gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting), hot flashes, and neurologic (dizziness) events characterize the safety profile of BIIB021 dosed twice weekly, with events mostly mild or moderate. Plasma exposure to BIIB021 was dose-dependent. Cmax occurred at approximately 90 minutes and t1/2 was approximately 1 hour across dosing cohorts of 25 to 800 mg BIIB021 twice weekly. The biological activity of BIIB021 was demonstrated in serum, PBMCs, and tumor tissue. Hsp70 levels were increased (>150% from baseline) and serum HER2-ECD was significantly decreased (>15% inhibition from baseline). BIIB021 twice weekly, given with or without the 1 of 4-week rest period was tolerated in subjects with advanced solid tumors at doses that are pharmacodynamically active.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: The chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) promotes angiogenesis, tumor proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Carlumab is a human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody with high CCL2 binding affinity. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data from 21 cancer patients with refractory tumors were analyzed. The PK/PD model characterized the temporal relationships between serum concentrations of carlumab, free CCL2, and the carlumab-CCL2 complex. Dose-dependent increases in total CCL2 concentrations were observed and were consistent with shifting free CCL2. Free CCL2 declined rapidly after the initial carlumab infusion, returned to baseline within 7 days, and increased to levels greater than baseline following subsequent doses. Mean predicted half-lives of carlumab and carlumab-CCL2 complex were approximately 2.4 days and approximately 1 hour for free CCL2. The mean dissociation constant (KD ), 2.4 nM, was substantially higher than predicted by in vitro experiments, and model-based simulation revealed this was the major factor hindering the suppression of free CCL2 at clinically viable doses.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In this first-in-human study of AEE788, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER-2, and VEGFR-2, a comprehensive pharmacodynamic program was implemented in addition to the evaluation of safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of AEE788 in cancer patients. Experimental design: Patients with advanced, solid tumors received escalating doses of oral AEE788 once daily. Primary endpoints were to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD). A nonlinear model (Emax model) was used to describe the relationship between AEE788 exposure and target-pathway modulation in skin and tumor tissues. Results: Overall, 111 patients were treated (25 to 550 mg/day). DLTs included rash and diarrhea; MTD was 450 mg/day. Effects on biomarkers correlated to serum AEE788 concentrations. The concentration at 50% inhibition (IC(50)) for EGFR in skin (0.033 μmol/L) and tumor (0.0125 μmol/L) were similar to IC(50) in vitro suggesting skin may be surrogate tissue for estimating tumor EGFR inhibition. No inhibition of p-MAPK and Ki67 was observed in skin vessels at ≤ MTD. Hence, AEE788 inhibited EGFR, but not VEGFR, at doses ≤ MTD. A total of 16 of 96 evaluable patients showed a >10% shrinkage of tumor size; one partial response was observed. Conclusion: Our pharmacodynamic-based study showed effective inhibition of EGFR, but not of VEGFR at tolerable AEE788 doses. Emax modeling integrated with biomarker data effectively guided real-time decision making in the early development of AEE788. Despite clinical activity, target inhibition of only EGFR led to discontinuation of further AEE788 development.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) promotes tumor growth by angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration and tumor invasion, and distant metastasis. Carlumab (CNTO 888) is a human IgG1κ mAb with high affinity and specificity for human CCL2. Preclinical data suggest carlumab may offer clinical benefit to cancer patients. Methods: In a phase 2, open-label study, patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) previously treated with docetaxel received a 90-min infusion of 15 mg/kg carlumab q2w. The primary endpoint was response rate: change from baseline in skeletal lesions, extraskeletal lesions, and PSA values. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate (CR + PR) by RECIST, OS, PSA response, safety, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity. Results: Forty-six patients were treated with 6 median (range 1, 26) doses. One patient had SD >6 months. There were no PSA or RECIST responses. Fourteen (34 %) patients had SD ≥ 3 months. Median OS was 10.2 (95 % CI: 5.2, not estimable) months. Twelve (39 %) patients reported improved pain scores. AEs occurred in 43 (93 %) patients, including 27 (59 %) with grade ≥ 3 AEs. Common grade ≥ 3 AEs were back (11 %) and bone (9 %) pain. Twenty (43 %) patients experienced SAEs, including pneumonia, spinal cord compression, back pain. No patient developed antibodies to carlumab. Steady-state serum concentrations were achieved after 3 repeated doses and were above the 10-μg/mL target concentration. Suppression of free CCL2 serum concentrations was briefly observed following each dose but was not sustained. Conclusion: Carlumab was well-tolerated but did not block the CCL2/CCR2 axis or show antitumor activity as a single agent in metastatic CRPC.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Investigational New Drugs
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    ABSTRACT: A phase 1, open-label, non-randomized, single center study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and mass balance of patupilone in patients with advanced solid tumors. Five patients with advanced solid tumors received 10 mg/m(2) (1.1 MBq) of (14) C-radiolabeled patupilone at cycle 1 as a 20-minute intravenous infusion every 3 weeks until disease progression. Sequential samples of blood/plasma were taken for 3 weeks and urine and fecal samples were collected for seven days after the first dose of patupilone. Patupilone blood levels decreased rapidly after the infusion. The compound showed a large volume of distribution (V(ss): 2242 L). The main radiolabeled component in blood was patupilone itself, accompanied by the lactone hydrolysis products that are unlikely to contribute to the pharmacological effect of patupilone. The blood clearance of patupilone was relatively low at 14 L/h. The administered radioactivity dose was excreted slowly (46 % of dose up to 168 h) but ultimately accounted for 91 % of the dose by extrapolation. The fecal excretion of radioactivity was 2-3 times higher than the urinary excretion consistent with hepato-biliary elimination. Three patients had progressive disease and two patients had stable disease as their best response. Patupilone was generally well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors with no newly occurring safety events compared to previous clinical studies. In adult solid tumor patients, intravenous radiolabeled patupilone undergoes extensive metabolism with fecal excretion of radioactive metabolites predominating over renal excretion.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Investigational New Drugs

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib undergoes oxidative hepatic metabolism. This study (NCI-6432; NCT00091117) was conducted to evaluate bortezomib pharmacokinetics and safety in patients with varying degrees of hepatic impairment, to inform dosing recommendations in these special populations. Patients received bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of 21-day cycles. Patients were assigned to four hepatic function groups based on the National Cancer Institute Organ Dysfunction Working Group classification. Those with normal function received bortezomib at the 1.3 mg/m(2) standard dose. Patients with severe, moderate, and mild impairment received escalating doses from 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 mg/m(2), respectively, up to a 1.3 mg/m(2) maximum. Serial blood samples were collected for 24 hours postdose on days 1 and 8, cycle 1, for bortezomib plasma concentration measurements. Sixty-one patients were treated, including 14 with normal hepatic function and 17, 12, and 18 with mild, moderate, and severe impairment, respectively. Mild hepatic impairment did not alter dose-normalized bortezomib exposure (AUC(0-tlast)) or C(max) compared with patients with normal function. Mean dose-normalized AUC(0-tlast) was increased by approximately 60% on day 8 in patients with moderate or severe impairment. Patients with mild hepatic impairment do not require a starting dose adjustment of bortezomib. Patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment should be started at a reduced dose of 0.7 mg/m(2).
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Bexarotene (Targretin(®) capsules) is a retinoid-X-receptor agonist and an inducer of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. This phase I trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and drug-drug interactions of bexarotene with chemotherapy and a lipid-lowering agent (atorvastatin or fenofibrate). This trial was run in parallel with phase III trials of the combinations to determine whether repeated doses of bexarotene capsules affect the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the chemotherapeutic or the lipid-lowering agents. Patients (n = 48) with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were treated with repetitive cycles of either paclitaxel/carboplatin or cisplatin/vinorelbine chemotherapy, bexarotene (400 mg/m(2)/day) administered continuously starting on day 4 of chemotherapy, and a lipid-lowering drug, either atorvastatin or fenofibrate, starting at least 5 days before chemotherapy due to hypertriglyceridemia induced by bexarotene. Extensive plasma sampling to characterize the PK profiles of the lipid-lowering drugs, relevant chemotherapy agents was performed on day 1 (without bexarotene) and during chemotherapy cycles 2 or 3 (with bexarotene). Here, we report the drug-drug interactions between the lipid-lowering agents and bexarotene. Mean atorvastatin clearance and dose-corrected AUC values were reduced by nearly 50% with the addition of concomitant bexarotene. As fenofibrate was less effective at controlling hypertriglyceridemia, too few patients received this agent to make any meaningful conclusions about drug-drug interactions. A drug-drug interaction was seen in this trial with bexarotene co-administration leading to a significant reduction in the AUC of atorvastatin. The likely mechanism for this interaction is through induction of CYP3A4 by bexarotene given the role of this enzyme in the metabolism of atorvastatin. Knowledge of this interaction is important for optimizing lipid management with atorvastatin for patients receiving bexarotene.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical data suggest that the synthetic retinoid bexarotene may be an effective chemopreventive agent and that it may act synergistically in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether repeated doses of bexarotene capsules affect pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel or carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Patients received treatment with paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin to provide a target AUC of 6 mg min/mL (day 1) every 3 weeks. Continuous oral bexarotene therapy (400 mg/m(2)/day) was initiated on Day 4, and patients started lipid-lowering therapy prior to beginning chemotherapy. Blood sampling to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of the chemotherapeutic agents with or without bexarotene was performed during cycle 1 (without concomitant bexarotene) and during cycle 2 (with concomitant bexarotene). An analysis of drug concentration data from 16 patients indicated that bexarotene did not affect the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, free carboplatin, or total carboplatin concentrations. However, both maximal plasma concentrations and total exposure of bexarotene increased by 80% in the presence of paclitaxel-carboplatin by an, as of yet, unexplained mechanism. The toxicities observed resembled those of either the chemotherapy regimen or bexarotene alone, and there was no evidence for an enhancement of any drug-related toxicity with the combined treatment. The administration of bexarotene, paclitaxel, and carboplatin is feasible and safe; however, the increased bexarotene plasma concentrations and exposure warrant further investigation if this combination is to be utilized clinically.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
  • Kamalesh K Sankhala · Monica M Mita · Alain C Mita · Chris H Takimoto
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are highly conserved proteins and their expression is dependent on the level of various cellular stresses. Hsp work as a molecular chaperon for several cellular proteins and have cytoprotective roles. Their function is essential for normal cell viability and growth. Hsp90 interacts with proteins mediating cell signaling involved in essential processes such as proliferation, cell cycle control, angiogenesis and apoptosis. The naturally occurring Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) was the first to demonstrate anticancer activity but its significant toxicity profile in pre-clinical models precluded its clinical development. Subsequent, several Hsp90 inhibitors have been developed and underwent clinical development with favorable safety profiles. Several initial clinical studies have shown promising anticancer activity of Hsp90 inhibitors mainly in breast cancer, non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and various hematological malignancies. The universal involvement of Hsp90 in multiple oncogenic processes makes Hsp90 inhibitors ideal compounds to be explored as a single agent or in combination with other anticancer therapies.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Current drug targets
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I study was conducted primarily to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of tesetaxel, a novel, orally active, semisynthetic microtubule inhibitor of the taxane class, administered with oral capecitabine to patients with advanced solid tumors. During each 21-day cycle, patients were to receive tesetaxel on Day 1 and capecitabine twice daily on Days 1 through 14. The starting dose was tesetaxel 18 mg/m(2) and capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2)/day. These doses were increased based on tolerability during the first cycle according to the protocol-specified dose-escalation scheme. Response was evaluated every other treatment cycle according to RECIST. Serial blood samples were collected during the first and second cycles to explore possible pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled and treated. The most frequently reported dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia and febrile neutropenia, with individual patients experiencing dose-limiting stomatitis and diarrhea. The MTD for the treatment regimen was defined as tesetaxel 27 mg/m(2) and capecitabine 2,500 mg/m(2)/day. The most common ≥ Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events included leukopenia (44% of patients) and neutropenia (41%). Of 22 evaluable patients, the best overall response was stable disease in 82% and progressive disease in 18%. No meaningful pharmacokinetic drug interactions were apparent. The results of this study demonstrate that these two orally active agents can be combined at the individual MTD of each drug with acceptable toxicity. These data further support the continued clinical development of tesetaxel both as a single agent and in combination with other active cancer therapeutics.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
  • Chee M Ng · A Patnaik · M Beeram · C C Lin · C H Takimoto
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop a mechanism-based population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model in describing troxacitabine-induced neutropenia in patients with cancer. A total of 727 PK/PD samples from 31 patients with cancer were included in the analysis. A mechanism-based population PD model was developed to describe neutropenia and the final model consisted of (1) a drug-sensitive uncommitted progenitor cell compartment (2) three transit compartments, and (3) a circulating neutrophil compartment with feedback mechanism. The troxacitabine affected the proliferation of sensitive progenitor cells through an inhibitory E (max) model. The model parameters were estimated using the MCPEM algorithm that was implemented in a parallel computing platform consisting of a single computer equipped with a quad-core INTEL central processor unit. The mechanism-based PK/PD model developed using parallelized MCPEM method adequately describes the complex relationship between the exposure and absolute neutrophil counts in troxacitabine-treated patients with cancer. The simulation results suggested that the less frequent dosing schedule of troxacitabine used currently in clinical studies was associated with less incidence of neutropenia compared to more frequent dosing schedule.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the toxicities, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and maximum tolerated dose of bortezomib in patients with renal impairment and to develop dosing guidelines for such a patient population. Sixty-two adult cancer patients received intravenous bortezomib at 0.7-1.5 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 3 weeks. Patients were stratified by 24-h creatinine clearance (CrCl) normalized to body surface area (BSA) 1.73 m(2) into five cohorts: normal renal function (≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); mild dysfunction (40-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate dysfunction (20-39 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); severe dysfunction (<20 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); and dialysis. Dose escalation was planned for the four cohorts with renal dysfunction. Plasma bortezomib concentrations and blood 20S proteasome inhibition were assayed. Bortezomib escalation to the standard 1.3 mg/m(2) dose was well tolerated in all patients with CrCl ≥ 20 ml/min/1.73 m(2); 0.7 mg/m(2) was tolerated in three patients with severe renal dysfunction (<20 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Bortezomib dose escalation was well tolerated in nine dialysis patients, including to 1.3 mg/m(2) in four patients. Decreased CrCl did not affect bortezomib pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Bortezomib-related side-effects were neither more common nor severe in patients with renal dysfunction versus those with normal renal function. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) is well tolerated, and dose reductions are not necessary in patients with renal dysfunction. Extrapolation from clinical and pharmacologic data suggests patients with severe renal dysfunction, including dialysis patients, can receive bortezomib at the full dose established to be clinically effective in the general patient population.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Patupilone is a novel microtubule-targeting cytotoxic agent, which exerts its antitumor effect through microtubule stabilization. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of warfarin when administered concomitantly with patupilone were investigated, and antitumor activity was assessed. This was a phase I, two-center, drug-drug interaction study. In the core phase of the study, treatment consisted of warfarin 20 mg orally (days 1 and 29) and patupilone 10 mg/m(2) i.v. (days 8 and 29). Patients benefiting from patupilone treatment continued treatment every 3 weeks (extension phase) until progression of disease, death, or unacceptable toxicity. Seventeen patients were treated (core phase, 17; extension, 9). The geometric mean ratios (comedication/monotherapy) for C(max) and area under the curve(0-168) of warfarin were near unity and their 90% confidence intervals were within the equivalence limits of 0.80 and 1.25. The half-life, plasma clearance, and International Normalized Ratio (INR) of warfarin were not affected by patupilone coadministration. The most common adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, dehydration, asthenia, and peripheral neuropathy. Five (29.4%) patients experienced grade 3 study drug-related adverse events (diarrhea, 17.6%; increased INR, 11.8%; dehydration, 5.9%; and neutropenia, 5.9%). One patient with triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2/neu negative) had a partial response (35% decrease in tumor measurements by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors), and 11 had stable disease for 6 weeks or more (≥12 weeks, 6 patients). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin were not affected by patupilone coadministration, suggesting that patupilone has no clinically relevant effect on CYP2C9 metabolism. Patupilone showed antitumor activity in triple-negative breast cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I study was conducted to characterize the safety profile, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and the maximum-tolerated dose of E7820, a novel oral sulfonamide derivative with antiangiogenic properties, when administered to patients with advanced solid malignancies. Patients and Methods: Patients received single daily doses of E7820 orally for 28 days in cycle 1, followed by a 7-day no-treatment period, after which time-uninterrupted daily dosing ensued. The starting dose of E7820 was 10 mg/d, which was increased to 20, 40, 70, 100, and 200 mg/d in cohorts of new patients. Thirty-seven patients [21 male; median age 65 (40-82] were enrolled. At 100 mg/d, 1 patient experienced a DLT consisting of grade 3 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. At the 200-mg dose level, 2 patients experienced grade 4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. No partial or complete responses were observed; 8 patients had stable disease (≥ 4 months), including 5 patients with protracted stable disease exceeding 6 months. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration values ranged from 1 to 12 hours, whereas mean terminal half-life values ranged from 5.6 to 8.6 hours. Flow cytometric analysis of platelet integrin α-2 expression showed a sustained greater than 50% decrease beyond day 28 in 3 of 4 patients at 200 mg, whereas moderate (<30%) decreases were observed at 70- and 100-mg dose levels. The recommended phase II dose of E7820 is 100 mg/d, based on a fasting schedule. E7820 downregulates integrin α-2 expression in surrogate tissues (platelets) and is associated with stable disease in a wide variety of heavily pretreated malignancies.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,090.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2013
    • Janssen Research & Development, LLC
      Raritan, New Jersey, United States
  • 2001-2012
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • • Cancer Therapy & Research Center
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center
      LEB, New Hampshire, United States
    • West Virginia University
      MGW, West Virginia, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States
    • ALS Therapy Development Institute
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Brooke Army Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • The Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research USA
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001-2003
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1994-2003
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program
      • • Developmental Therapeutics Program
      • • Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993-1996
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Medical Oncology Branch and Affiliates
      베서스다, Maryland, United States